Lammas dating

Lorenzo Lamas has played many roles over his career. He’s starred in two major television shows, “Falcon Crest” and “Renegade,” has been married five times and been the subject of many ... Shayne Lamas’s husband is Nik Richie. Nik Richie was born in Hackensack and is currently 41 years old. He is a Blogger. The couple started dating in 2010. They’ve been together for approximately 10 years, 1 month, and 25 days. A look at Lorenzo Lamas's dating history. Who is Lorenzo Lamas dating now? View past relationships, dating news, rumors, net worth, and full biography. Exeter's historic Lammas Fair, the city's famous ceremony that dates back 900-years, has been cancelled for the first time in hundreds of years. Who is he dating right now? According to our records, Lorenzo Lamas is possibly single. Relationships. Lorenzo Lamas was previously married to Shawna Craig (2011 - 2019), Shauna Sand (1996 - 2002), Kathleen Kinmont (1989 - 1993), Michelle Smith (1983 - 1985) and Victoria Hilbert (1981 - 1982). Dear Prudie, I am a 30-year-old woman who has been dating a lovely man for three months. He’s smart, funny, cute, and kind. He’s smart, funny, cute, and kind. I’ve felt so lucky to have ... Who is he dating right now? According to our records, Lamman Rucker is possibly single. Relationships. Lamman Rucker has been in a relationship with Jill Scott (2008).. About. Lamman Rucker is a 48 year old American Actor. Born on 6th October, 1971 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, he is famous for Half and Half. Who is Lorenzo Lamas dating? Lorenzo Lamas is currently single, according to our records.. The American TV Actor was born in Santa Monica on January 20, 1958. Television actor who gained recognition for his roles on the television series Falcon Crest, Renegade, and The Bold and the Beautiful. See all Lorenzo Lamas' marriages, divorces, hookups, break ups, affairs, and dating relationships plus celebrity photos, latest Lorenzo Lamas news, gossip, and biography. Lorenzo Lamas is currently single. He has been in 11 celebrity relationships averaging approximately 2.8 years each. His five marriages have averaged 4.6 years each. After the procession sets off from Southernhay at 11am and walks to the Guildhall, the Lord Mayor reads a proclamation dating back to King Edward III in 1330 opening the Lammas Fair - these days ...

Lughnasadh -August 1st, start of the harvest season

2020.08.01 13:58 Citizen_Caned Lughnasadh -August 1st, start of the harvest season

Lughnasadh or Lughnasa (/ˈluːnəsə/ LOO-nə-sə) is a Gaelic festival marking the beginning of the harvest season. Historically, it was widely observed throughout Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man. In Modern Irish it is called Lúnasa, in Scottish Gaelic: Lùnastal, and in Manx: Luanistyn. Traditionally it is held on 1 August, or about halfway between the summer solstice and autumn equinox. However, in recent centuries some of the celebrations shifted to the Sundays nearest this date. Lughnasadh is one of the four Gaelic seasonal festivals, along with Samhain, Imbolc and Beltane. It corresponds to other European harvest festivals such as the Welsh Gŵyl Awst and the English Lammas.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lughnasadh#:~:text=Historically%2C%20it%20was%20widely%20observed,summer%20solstice%20and%20autumn%20equinox.
submitted by Citizen_Caned to northernireland [link] [comments]


2020.08.01 09:11 LeminaAusa 🌾 Lughnasadh / Lammas 🌾

Welcome to the latest sabbat informational post! Throughout the year, we will be posting up these threads to share general information about the next upcoming sabbat so WvP's witches, new and old, can prepare for the holiday. These posts will contain basic information about the holiday and open up for the floor for further questions or discussion.

🌾 Lughnasadh / Lammas 🌾

What and When are Lughnasadh and Lammas? What's the difference?

Lughnasadh (pronounced LOO-na-sa) also known as Lammas is one of the eight sabbats of the modern pagan Wheel of the Year. It is one of the "greater sabbats", falling approximately halfway between an equinox and a solstice. The others are Samhain (mid-Autumn), Imbolc (mid-Winter), and Beltane (mid-Spring).
In the northern hemisphere, Lughnasadh traditionally falls on August 1st, which was its traditional date in the Celtic tradition which also shares the same name. The English Christian festival of Lammas also falls on the same day. Different pagan traditions generally prefer one name over the other, but either can work for most witches. You can read on down below for a bit more of the history of the names and the differences between them. Additionally, other cultures and spiritual traditions have their own ways of celebrating the burgeoning of spring. No matter what type of witch you are, you have a lot of options to choose from!
Additionally, Witches in the southern hemisphere will be celebrating Imbolc soon! I started making these posts shortly after this year's northern Imbolc, so I don't have a post to link to for that one, but starting with the Autumnal Equinox I'll be able to link the opposing sabbats for our southern witches!

Lughnasadh & Lammas: History, Connections, and Modern Practice

The original Lughnasadh was a Celtic holiday celebrating the god Lugh. Traditionally, it was a time of great harvest festivals, feasts, and athletic contests, such as the Tailteann Games in honour of Lugh's foster mother Tailtiu, a goddess of agriculture. The celebration of Lughnasadh has continued in Ireland into the modern day, even for non-pagans.
In England, this festival was lived on as Lammas, from the Anglo-Saxon term meaning "loaf-mass", and was rebranded as a Christian holiday, but also meant to celebrate the harvest. Wiccans generally also prefer to use this name for the pagan holiday because of its direct connection to grain and the harvest.
Whichever name you prefer, the purpose is the same: to celebrate the beginning of the harvest season.
Most modern Lughnasadh celebrations involve lots of food and feasting, so kitchen witches are at their prime. Bread and corn are the most commonly used supplies, and not just to eat, but for rituals and offerings, and also and decorations, such as corn husk dolls. If you're American, it might help to think of it as something akin to a pagan Thanksgiving. Any and all things growing and edible are celebrated and loved.
Those with more Celtic leanings may also often incorporate more traditional Irish aspects, including sports and athletic contests, and also taking long walks or pilgrimages to various sites.
As a part of the Wheel of the Year, Lughnasadh follows Midsummer; Food is plentiful, bellies are full, the sun is warm. It is a time to thank the gods for the blessings of the year and enjoy the bounty while it lasts. After all, the sun is already noticeably setting earlier and earlier in the day, and darker times are approaching.
If you look at the sabbats as a reflection of the self, Lughnasadh is the time to give thanks for the gifts that we have been given. It may be hard in a time like 2020, but it's important to spend some time appreciating the positive things that we have going on in our lives, and to appreciate the people and powers that have helped us along the way. And don't forget to give your thanks to nature and all of the bounty she provides for us despite all the shit that humans continue to put her through.
Symbols: Grain, Corn, Loaves of Bread, Pentacles, Sickles/Scythes Colours: Green, Yellow/Gold, Orange, Light Browns Plants/Herbs: Corn, Sunflowers, Wheat, Calendula, Mint, Meadowsweet Foods: Corn, Fresh Baked Bread, Summer Fruits, Early Autumn Vegetables... basically everything in season and lots of it!

Simple rituals and ways to celebrate Lughnasadh include:

  • Bake a Lammas Loaf. This is only one example recipe, but any kind of fresh bread will do.
  • Perform some bread magic, such as this Lammas Bread protection spell.
  • Honour the Celtic gods Lugh and Tailiu by playing games, sports, or otherwise performing athletic feats, such as in the Tailteann Games.
  • Make a Corn Husk Doll. Some witches like to save their dolls from Lughnasash and use them again redressed in spring colours for Imbolc.
  • Create a Harvest Spell Jar, substituting your own ingredients and meaning (this is just one example of such a jar).
  • Setup, clean, and/or refresh your altar for Lughnasadh. Tumblr has lots of ideas if you're lacking inspirtation!
  • Decorate with Sunflowers and other seasonal blossoms.
  • Cook some other Lammas-inspired goodies to unleash your inner Kitchen Witch; here are some suggestions. Freshest is bestest!
  • Perform a Lughnasadh seasonal rite/ritual. Here is a good example of a solitary Lughnasadh ritual, for practising witches without a coven. This post also contains some nice seasonal spells, rituals, crafts, and rites.
  • For witches with children, do some fun Lammas craft projects.
  • Celebrate by eating and cooking with seasonal produce.

Tips for New and/or Broom Closet Witches

Lughnasadh can be a difficult sabbat to celebrate for broom closet witches. The UK and Ireland are some of the few countries where Lammas/Lúnasa are still part of modern, secular celebrations. For the most part, the modern Western world doesn't really celebrate Harvest festivals, and when they do, it's geared more towards the later harvest (think of all the corn stalks, hay bales, etc. you see around Halloween).
Baking/Cooking and decorating with corn husks and sunflowers are some of the easiest ways to blend in with the holiday. In general, lots of people have been flocking to baking their own bread during quarantine, so join the club! Refresh your house or living space by adding in some fresh flowers.
Much of the importance of the Wheel of the Year is to really incorporate yourself with nature and the earth's yearly cycles. Take this opportunity to think about this year's growing season and how it's affecting the world around you. Which flowers, vegetables, and fruits are at their ripest in your region this time of year? Are you noticing the shortening sun already? How has the summer and growing season treated you and the animals and plants in your area?
Since this post was so late due to my elbow injury, I'd like to open the floor for everyone to also share their stories, decorations, rituals, etc. for this Lughnasadh/Lammas. Please share! 🌾
If you're in the southern hemisphere, we'd also like to hear about your Imbolc celebrations too, so please don't feel shy or left out! ✨
submitted by LeminaAusa to WitchesVsPatriarchy [link] [comments]


2020.07.30 18:02 dianenguyen1 Anyone else here celebrate Esther Day?

When I first started learning about neopaganism, I was enthusiastic about celebrating all eight traditional sabbats, but over time, I realized that some of them didn't have a lot of meaning to me, and also that there were a few other holidays occurring around the same times to which I already had a connection. For example, I celebrate Esther Day instead of Lughnasadh/Lammas.
For those who don't know, Esther Day is a holiday observed annually on August 3rd that celebrates familial and platonic love (rather than romantic and sexual love). Esther Day’s name and date honor Esther Earl, a young vlogger and activist who passed away due to cancer at the early age of sixteen. Before her death, John Green (an author, vlogger, and friend of Esther’s) told Esther that he and his brother, Hank, would celebrate her birthday in any way that she wished. Esther told him that she wanted it to be a day to celebrate love for family and friends by telling those who we love that we love them, even if it’s difficult. Since then, Esther Day has grown to be a holiday for people around the world to celebrate familial and platonic love. If you want to learn more about the origins of Esther Day, you can find more information here and here.
Coincidentally, I don't celebrate Imbolc (what people in the southern hemisphere are celebrating now) either; instead, I celebrate Chinese New Year, or Spring Festival, which has similarities to Imbolc in that it celebrates the first stirrings of spring, but has more personal and cultural meaning to me.
Does anyone else here celebrate Esther Day? Or, if you celebrate another alternative to Lughnasadh/Lammas, feel free to share that as well :)
submitted by dianenguyen1 to SASSWitches [link] [comments]


2020.07.27 18:40 NotApplicableMC Lammas in the Broom Closet

31st July/1st August
Also known as Lughnasadh. Pronounced Loo-nas-ah.
I find no consistency as to whether people call it Lughnasadh or Lammas. Lughnasadh comes from Lugh in Irish Celtic mythology, whereas Lammas is an Anglo-Saxon word.

Overview

Lammas is the celebration of this first Grain Harvest, a time for gathering in and giving thanks for abundance. The word 'Lammas' is derived from 'loaf mass' and is indicative of how central and honoured is the first grain and the first loaf of the harvesting cycle.
It is also the great festival of Lugh, or Lug, the great Celtic Sun King and God of Light. Lughnasadh means "the funeral games of Lugh" (pronounced Loo), referring to Lugh, the sun god. However, the funeral is not his own, but the funeral games he hosts in honor of his foster-mother Tailtiu.
Feasting, market fairs, games and bonfire celebrations were the order of the day. Circle dancing, reflecting the movement of the sun in sympathetic magic, was popular, as were all community gatherings. August was considered an auspicious month for handfastings and weddings.
But underlying this is the knowledge that the bounty and energy of Lugh, of the Sun, is now beginning to wane. It is a time of change and shift. Active growth is slowing down and the darker days of winter and reflection are beckoning... Source
The Christian religion adopted this theme and called it 'Lammas ', meaning 'loaf-mass ', a time when newly baked loaves of bread are placed on the altar. An alternative date around August 5 (Old Lammas), when the sun reaches 15 degrees Leo, is sometimes employed by Covens.
Incense: Aloes, Rose, Sandalwood.
Sacred Gemstone: Carnelian
Source

How to celebrate Lughnasadh/Lammas

Decorate your altar - Use colours like still green, with every shade of sun and harvest, from gold and yellow to deepest orange. Decorate with wheat and all grains, corn dolly, bread, sunflowers and calendulas (pot marigolds).
Cook food with traditional ingredients - Apples, Grains, Breads, Berries, All Grains, Grapes, Heather, Blackberries, Sloe, Crab Apples, Pears.
Make a feast - Pagans celebrate this time to remember its warmth and bounty in a celebrated feast shared with family or Coven members. If you have no one to share in your feast, make yourself some food with traditional ingredients and eat this mindfully in the presence of the God & Goddess.
Save and plant the seeds from the fruits consumed during the feast or ritual. If they sprout, grow the plant or tree with love and as a symbol of your connection with the Lord and Lady.
Go for a walk - Walk through the fields and orchards or spend time along springs, creeks, rivers, ponds and lakes reflecting on the bounty and love of the Lord and Lady.
submitted by NotApplicableMC to BroomClosetWitch [link] [comments]


2020.06.13 16:53 phdemented The Origin of the Monsters in Dungeons and Dragons - Part 7

Part 1: Letters A + B
Part 2: Letter C
Part 3: Devils and Demons
Part 4: Letters D, E, and F
Part 5: Letter G
Part 6: Letters H, I, J, K

Some decent creatures in this post, covering the letters L and M.

L

Lamia
Etymology: Greek, possibly from the Greek Laimos (“gullet”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: From the Greek myth of the queen of Lybia who became a child eating demon, her name was used as a type of “boogey man” to frighten children. Later accounts described her with a serpents tail below the waist. Appears as a woman/lion/horse hybrid in the 1658 "The History of Four-Footed Beasts and Serpents" by Edward Topsell
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamia


Lammasu
Etymology: Akkadian lamassu, from Sumerian lamma
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Greyhawk supplement (1976), and later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Sumerian mythology, Lama was a protective deity. Originally typically female (compared to the male Shedu), later in Assyrian times took on the form of a chimeric creature with the head of a man, body of a lion or bull, and eagles wings.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamassu


Lamprey, Land
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Monstrous version of the real world lamprey. Possible SNL reference.


Larva
Etymology: From Latin larva (“ghost-like, masked”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Restless and possibly vengeful spirits of the dead in roman lore, similar to Lemures
https://pantheon.org/articles/l/larvae.html


Leprechaun
Etymology: From Irish leipreachán/luprachán, from old Irish luchorpán, from (“small”) + corp (“body”)
First Appearance: First appeared in Strategic Review #3 (1975), later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Irish mythology, a fairy creature which appears as a small man, often mischievous. Tales say they will grant wishes to those that capture them in exchange for release.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leprechaun


Leucrotta
Etymology: Variant of the Latin crocotta (unknown root)
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Greek or Roman, the leucrotta was a hyena-like beast, with "with a stag's haunches, a lion's neck, tail and breast, badger's head, cloven hoof, mouth opening right back to the ears, and ridges of bone in place of rows of teeth, this animal is reported to imitate the voices of human beings."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocotta
“Among the shepherds’s homesteads it simulates human speech, and picks up the name of one of them so as to call him to come out of doors and tear him to pieces, and also that it imitates a person being sick, to attract the dogs so that it may attack them; that this animal alone digs up corpses; that a female is seldom caught; that its eyes have a thousand variations of color; moreover that when its shadow falls on dogs they are struck dumb; and that it has certain magic arts by which it causes every animal at which it gazes three times to stand rooted to the spot. When crossed with this race of animals the Ethiopian lioness gives birth to the corocotta, that mimics the voices of men and cattle in a similar way. It has an unbroken ridge of bone in each jaw, forming a continuous tooth without any gum”
-Pliny the Elder, Natural History, 1st Century AD


Lich
Etymology: English lich (“corpse”), from Old English līċ (“dead body”), from Proto-Germanic \līka*
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Greyhawk supplement (1976), and later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Traditionally a word only for the dead, but became used as a term for undead monsters in early 20th century literature For example, Clark Ashton Smith used the term to apply to dead bodies, both animated and inanimate, and both CAS and Robert Howard include tales of ancient sorcerers using magic to defeat death and survive in unlife. In Ambrose Bierce’s “The Death of Halpin Frayser” (1893) refers to the spirit of a dead ancestor who possesses a living body as a lich. The connection between the lich’s spirit and a phylactery is unknown.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lich


Lizards
Etymology: English lizard, from Middle English lisarde, from Old French lesard, from Latin lacertus (“lizard”)
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Blackmoor Supplement (1975) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Unknown of specific origin of various types, likely inspired by various monster movies of the 40’s-60’s (Abbot and Costello Meet the Mummy (1955), The Giant Gila Monster (1959), One Million BC (1966), etc.)


Lizard Man (Lizardfolk)
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Greyhawk supplement (1976), and later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Reptilian humanoids are common elements of various mythologies (often a snake/human chimera) and fantasy literature. Unknown if D&D version has a specific reference.


Locathah
Etymology: Uncertain
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Blackmoor Supplement (1975), later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Uncertain origin, possibly inspired by H.P. Lovecraftian Deep Ones or more monstrous versions of mythological mermen.


Luck Eater
Etymology: Middle English luk, from Dutch luc, a shortening of gheluc (“good fortune”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Unknown, possibly related to the concept that black cats can be the bearers of good or bad luck.


Lurker Above
First Appearance: First appeared in Strategic Review #3 (1975), later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Uncertain


Lycanthrope
Etymology: From Greek Lycos (“wolf”) Anthropos (“Man”)
First Appearance: First appeared (werebears and werewolves) in the fantasy supplement for Chainmail (1971), first appeared (with wereboar and weretiger added) in D&D in the original D&D set (1974), with the wererat added in the Greyhawk supplement (1976). These 5 appeared in the Monster Manual (1977), with the foxwoman, seawolf, and wereshark added in Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: The name lycanthrope can refer to any human able to shapeshift into animal form, though the name refers to werewolves in particular. Various different animal forms come from different cultures around the world.

Lycanthrope, Foxwoman
Origin: Possibly from the Japanese Kitsune, a wolf spirit that could sometimes take the form of a human, or from A. Merritt’s The Fox Woman and Other Stories (1946).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kitsune

Lycanthrope, Seawolf
Origin: The Tlingit-Haida (native to the Pacific North West) people have a legend of Wasgo, a sea wolf. A young man kills the sea wolf (a half orca/half wolf) and dons its skin, turning into the creature at night.
https://www.scientificexploration.org/docs/5/jse_05_1_swords.pdf

Lycanthrope, Wereshark
Origin: From Hawai’i; Ka-moho-aliʻi, the King-shark, who could take human form. He had a child with a human woman, and the son (Nanaue) was born with a shark’s mouth on his back, and could turn into a shark when swimming.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C4%81mohoali%CA%BBi

Lycanthrope, Werebear
Origin: Possibly inspired by Beorn, from Tolkien’s The Hobbit (1937), or from the Berserkers (“bear shirts”) of Nordic lore who, in some tales, could shapeshift into a bears form. As werebears are notably of a good alignment, the connection to Beorn is more likely.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beorn
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berserker

Lycanthrope, Wereboar
Origin: Possibly from the tale of Circe in Homer’s Odyssey. Circe was an enchantress and daughter of the god Helios, who transformed her enemies into animals (usually boars).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circe

Lycanthrope, Wererat
Origin: Similar creatures appeared in Fritz Leiber’s The Swords of Lankhmar (1968)

Lycanthrope, Weretiger
Origin: Unknown, possibly based on the Indian Rakshasa.

Lycanthrope, Werewolf
Etymology: Old English werwulf, from were (“man”) + wulf (“wolf”).
Origin: The name for a werewolf (man-wolf) is the direct translation as lycanthrope (wolf-man). Werewolves exist in a wide range of European folklores, dating back to Ancient Greece and Rome.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Werewolf


Lynx, Giant
Etymology: Middle English Middle English lynx, from Greek lúnx, from PIE \lewk* (“White, Light, Bright”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Unknown. They are very intelligent and can speak, which hints and a specific source. Lynx are common in several mythologies (e.g. Norse and Native American) and often are attributed with supernatural powers such as clairvoyance or the ability to see through falsehoods, though this does not translate into the monster write up.

M


Meazel
Etymology: Possibly from meazel, and obsolete form of measle (“leper”), from Old French mesel (“leprous”), from Latin misellus (“wretched, unfortunate”), diminutive of miser (“wretched, sick”)
First Appearance: Fiend Folio (1981)
Origin: Uncertain


Magman (Magmin)
Etymology: Portmanteau of Magma + Man. Magma from the English magma (‘molten earth”), from Greek mágma (“paste”)
First Appearance: First appeared in A4 - In the Dungeons of the Slave Lords (1980), later in Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Uncertain


Mandragora
Etymology: Latin name for Mandrake. The shift from Mandragora to Mandrake likely originating due to the similarity of dragora to dragon/drake.
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Mandragora in the genus of the mandrake plant, which is strongly associated with magical rituals. They were also thought to be able to be brought to life, typically as a familiar.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandragora_(genus))


Manticore
Etymology: From Greek mantichoras (“man-eater, tiger”) from old Persian martya-χvāra (“man-eater”)
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D set (1974), and later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Persian, similar to a sphinx. The body of a lion and head of a man, with three rows of teeth. In some variants it had the tail of a dragon or scorpion, or could shoot poisonous spines. May be winged or have horns.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manticore
There is in India a wild beast, powerful, daring, as big as the largest lion, of a red colour like cinnabar, shaggy like a dog, and in the language of India it is called Martichoras. Its face however is not that of a wild beast but of a man, and it has three rows of teeth set in its upper jaw and three in the lower; these are exceedingly sharp and larger than the fangs of a hound. Its ears also resemble a man's, except that they are larger and shaggy; its eyes are blue-grey and they too are like a man's, but its feet and claws, you must know, are those of a lion. To the end of its tail is attached the sting of a scorpion, and this might be over a cubit in length; and the tail has stings at intervals on either side. But the tip of the tail gives a fatal sting to anyone who encounters it, and death is immediate. If one pursues the beast it lets fly its stings, like arrows, sideways, and it can shoot a great distance; and when it discharges its stings straight ahead it bends its tail back; if however it shoots in a backward direction, as the Sacae do, then it stretches its tail to its full extent. Any creature that the missile hits it kills; the elephant alone it does not kill. These stings which it shoots are a foot long and the thickness of a bulrush. Now Ctesias asserts (and he says that the Indians confirm his words) that in the places where those stings have been let fly others spring up, so that this evil produces a crop. And according to the same writer the Mantichore for choice devours human beings; indeed it will slaughter a great number; and it lies in wait not for a single man but would set upon two or even three men, and alone overcomes even that number. All other animals it defeats: the lion alone it can never bring down. That this creature takes special delight in gorging human flesh its very name testifies, for in the Greek language it means man-eater, and its name is derived from its activities. Like the stag it is extremely swift. Now the Indians hunt the young of these animals while they are still without stings in their tails, which they then crush with a stone to prevent them from growing stings. The sound of their voice is as near as possible that of a trumpet. Ctesias declares that he has actually seen this animal in Persia (it had been brought from India as a present to the Persian King) — if Ctesias is to be regarded as a sufficient authority on such matters. At any rate after hearing of the peculiarities of this animal, one must pay heed to the historian of Cnidos.
-Aelian, “Characteristics of Animals”, 3rd Century AD


Mantrap
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Uncertain, possibly inspired by a Venus flytrap.


Marid
Etymology: Arabic, مارد‎ mārid (“rebellious”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: From Arabic mythology, a marid was a powerful evil spirit (Shaitan) or powerful evil jinn. Sometimes is used interchangeably with ifrit.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marid


Masher
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Unknown


Medusa:
Etymology: Greek
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D set (1974), and later in the Monster Manual (1977).
Origin: From Greek mythology, one of the three gorgon sisters. She had the face of a hideous female with snakes for hair, and could turn a man to stone if they gazed upon her. Slain by the Greek hero Perseus.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medusa


Meenlock
Etymology: Possibly a portmanteau of mean (“cruel”), and morlock
First Appearance: Fiend Folio (1981)
Origin: Possibly the same as grimlock (inspired by the Morlocks from H.G. Wells)


Mephit
Etymology: From Latin mephitis (“stench”), also the name of a Samnite goddess of poisonous gasses (such as from swamps and volcanos). Also the scientific name for the skunk family (Mephitidae)
First Appearance: First appeared in White Dwarf #13, later in Fiend Folio (1981)
Origin: Variant of an imp
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mefitis


Mermen (Merfolk)
Etymology: From old English mere (“sea”) + man (“man”). Mere (sea) goes back to the proto-European móri (sea), common in many languages.
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D set (1974), and later in the Monster Manual (1977).
Origin: A common creature in various mythologies, a race of men or women who live in the sea, often with the tails of fish and torsos of men.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mermaid
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merman


Mihstu
Etymology: Possibly a pun of Mist
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Uncertain, Appeared in the Monster Cards


Mimic
Etymology: English mimic (“imitate”), from Greek mimikós (“belonging to mimes”), from mîmos (“imitatoactor”)
First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Unknown


Mind Flayer (Illithid)
First Appearance: First appeared in Strategic Review #1 (1975), first rulebook appearance was in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Created by Gary Gygax, inspired by the cover of The Burrowers Beneath by Brian Lumley (a story set in the cthulhu mythos).


Minotaur
Etymology: From the Greek Minotauros (“Bull of Minos”), from Minos (The name of the king of Crete) + Tauros (“bull”)
First Appearance: First appeared in D&D in the original D&D set (1974), and later in the Monster Manual (1977).
Origin: In Greek mythology, the minotaur was a creature with the head of a bull and body of a man. A singular creature (not a race) that dwelt in the labyrinth of Crete, slain by Theseus. The labyrinth was built on the command of King Minos.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minotaur


Minimal
Etymology: Portmanteau of Minimal (“small”) + Animal
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Uncertain


Mite
Etymology: Middle English mite, from Old English mīte (“mite, tiny insect”), from Proto-Germanic *mītǭ (“biting insect"; literally, "cutter”), from Proto-Germanic *maitaną (“to cut”), from Proto-Indo-European *mey- (“small”)
First Appearance: Fiend Folio (1981)
Origin: Uncertain


Modron
Etymology: Uncertain
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Created by Francois Marcela-Froideval. Possibly inspired by A. Merritt’s The Metal Monster (1920). In this novel, a character controls animated metal creatures of geometric forms (cubes, globes, and tetrahedrons).


Mongrelman
Etymology: English mongrel (“a creature of mixed origin”), from mong (“mixture”), from Old English gemong (“mingling”), the same root as among, from Proto-Germanic \mang* (“mix”)
First Appearance: First appeared in I1 - Dwellers of the Forbidden City (1981), later in Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Uncertain,. Possibly inspired by The Island of Doctor Moreau (H.G. Wells, 1896)


Moon Dog
Etymology: Likely a word play on a moon dog; a bright spot on the moons halo, caused by ice crystals in the cirrus/stratus clouds.
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Uncertain. A similar event during the day is called a sun dog. Monster may be based on a benevolent version of the English Black-hound (see Hell hound, Berghest, Cooshee, etc)


Morkoth
Etymology: Possibly inspired by Morgoth, the evil Ainur in J.R.R. Tolkien’s Middle Earth.
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Blackmoor Supplement (1975), later in the Monster Manual (1977)
Origin: Created by Steve Marsh. Origins are unknown, though Marsh states it was from an Andre Norton Witch World story (except in the story it was a surface dwelling monster).


Muckdweller
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Unknown


Mud-Man
First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983)
Origin: Unknown


Mummy
Etymology: From Latin mumia, from Arabic mūmiyāʾ, from Persian mumyâ, from Persian mum (“wax”)
First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D set (1974), and later in the Monster Manual (1977).
Origin: The word mummy can refer to any preserved body of a human or animal, though the typical concept of a mummy is based on Egyptian mummies. It was common in many cultures to mark the tombs of the dead with curses to scare off grave robbers, leading to the association between mummies and curses. Mummies later became part of literature and film, with many horror stories of the 19th century involving mummies coming to life, such as Theophile Gauntier’s The Foot of the Mummy (1840). Living mummies became a common trope in American film following 1932’s The Mummy.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mummy


Myconid
Etymology: From myco (“of or relating to fungi”)
First Appearance: First appears in A4 - In the Dungeons of the Slave Lords (1981), later in Monster Manual II (1983).
Origin: Uncertain
submitted by phdemented to DnD [link] [comments]


2020.02.12 11:06 fourrtwentyblaiseit For my Southern witches! Here are some of the dates of the sabbats for 2020. Hope this helps someone. Blessed be 🦋🔮🌙✨

Originally posted to witchlings
Southern Hemisphere wheel of the year
Source: https://spheresoflight.com.au/SOL/sabbat-dates/
💜Lughnasadgh/Lammas
Traditional date: February 2 ‘Exact’ date: February 4, 2020 (6:55pm)
💜Mabon (Autumnal Equinox)
Traditional date: March 21 ‘Exact’ date: March 20, 2020 (1:50pm)
💜Samhain
Traditional date: April 30/ May 1 ‘Exact’ date: May 5, 2020 (10:49pm)
💜Yule (Winter Solstice)
Traditional date: June 21 ‘Exact’ date: June 21, 2020 (7:44pm)
💜Imbolc
Traditional date: August 1 ‘Exact’ date: August 7, 2020 (11:04pm)
💜Ostara (Vernal/Spring equinox)
Traditional date: September 21 ‘Exact’ date: September 22, 2020 (11:31pm)
💜Beltane
Traditional date: October 31 ‘Exact’ date: November 8, 2020 (8:36am)
💜Litha (Summer solstice)
Traditional date: December 21 ‘Exact’ date: December 21, 2020 (8:02pm)
submitted by fourrtwentyblaiseit to witchcraft [link] [comments]


2020.02.12 11:04 fourrtwentyblaiseit For my Southern witches! The wheel of the year for 2020. Blessed be 🦋🌙🔮🦋✨

Source: https://spheresoflight.com.au/SOL/sabbat-dates/
💜Lughnasadgh/Lammas Traditional date: February 2 ‘Exact’ date: February 4, 2020 (6:55pm)
💜Mabon (Autumnal Equinox) Traditional date: March 21 ‘Exact’ date: March 20, 2020 (1:50pm)
💜Samhain Traditional date: April 30/ May 1 ‘Exact’ date: May 5, 2020 (10:49pm)
💜Yule (Winter Solstice) Traditional date: June 21 ‘Exact’ date: June 21, 2020 (7:44pm)
💜Imbolc Traditional date: August 1 ‘Exact’ date: August 7, 2020 (11:04pm)
💜Ostara (Vernal/Spring equinox) Traditional date: September 21 ‘Exact’ date: September 22, 2020 (11:31pm)
💜Beltane Traditional date: October 31 ‘Exact’ date: November 8, 2020 (8:36am)
💜Litha (Summer solstice) Traditional date: December 21 ‘Exact’ date: December 21, 2020 (8:02pm)
submitted by fourrtwentyblaiseit to witchlings [link] [comments]


2020.01.29 21:17 DrDeathDefying1 The Story So Far - MCRXX and the Wiccan Calendar

So a while back, I left this comment in response to someone pointing out the date lineup between various MCR reunion events so far, and dates on the Wiccan "wheel of the year" calendar. In light of today's video, I figured I'd make a full post re-explaining the lineup.
It should be noted before going any further: I am using the dates for the Northern Hemisphere. Because the calendar is sidereal (lunar vs. Julian/Gregorian) and tied strongly to the seasons, the festivals are inverted in the Southern Hemisphere.
Also, a disclaimer: I am not a Wiccan. This whole thread is a combination of stuff I scrubbed off Wikipedia and some other sources, and put together in my own head. If something written here is inaccurate, misleading, or garbage in some other way, please let me know and I will correct it.
EDIT [1/29 @ 16:33]: It must also be said that Wicca is not the same as Celtic paganism (or other pagan traditions), despite numerous similarities. This was emphasized by iwalkintheshadows. As such, I have revised a few entries to avoid confusion and focus on the Wicca significance. It is now noted where I have pulled additional influences from pagan traditions.
THE STORY SO FAR The Wiccan Wheel of the Year is a calendar of the sidereal year punctuated by eight seasonal festivals, four "quarter days" and four "cross-quarter" days. There is a lot of historical precedent for the modern significance of these days owing to a lot of pretty interesting cultural cross-melding and blending of traditions. For the purposes of this discussion, and owing to the obvious Wiccan influences of the Reunion materials so far, we will focus primarily on the Wiccan calendar without including pagan, Judeo-Christian, or other external influences. Seriously though, go do your own research on this stuff - it's fascinating.
Samhain (Hallowe'en) - October 31st On October 31st 2019, we got an official announcement of the Reunion show. This was essentially the day that we confirmed that MCR was in fact getting back together. Samhain is observed as one of the "quarter days" (Greater Sabbats) and is unsurprisingly a day of observance and remembrance of the dead.
Yule (Winter Solstice) - December 20th/21st Yule is also called Midwinter, and is the day of the year when the daylight is shortest. This was the date of the proper Reunion concert. Yule is typically celebrated as a turning point of the year, since from this point forward the days only get longer. It is the beginning of the return of the fertile seasons.
Imbolc - February 1st [REVISED 1/29] Imbolc is the festival between midwinter, and heralds the first signs of spring. Imbolc is typically seen as a time of purification and cleaning, essentially making oneself ready and more receptive to the coming spring. Imbolc traditions vary significantly from place to place and group to group. For Dianic Wiccans, Imbolc is seen as a time for initiation. Tickets for the US tour go on sale on this day on January 31st, which is technically "Imbolc Eve." Would've made more sense if they went on sale at sunset rather than noon, but I'll take it.
WHAT MIGHT BE COMING From this point forward, any connections to MCR "doing" anything other than show dates are purely speculative. I will update this section if/when more information comes out.
Ostara (Spring Equinox) - March 19th Ostara is the midway point between Imbolc and Beltane, and is the first of two feast days during which the sun and moon are in balance (equinoxes - 12 hours of light, 12 hours of night). There isn't much in the way of significance here for Wicca, other than it being a cross-quarter day and thus a time for celebration. Currently this lines up with the start of MCR's "festival circuit" with Download Festival Melbourne, but it also comes perilously close to the anniversary of both MCR's "official" breakup and the release of May Death Never Stop You. If I had to speculate, I would expect a single, or perhaps an official album release date (since it is a lesser feast day). When might this album release date be? Glad you asked...
Beltane - May 1st [REVISED 1/29] There is so much to unpack with Beltane, but suffice it to say (and this is big speculation) I think this might be our date for an album release, assuming that MCR is still following the Wheel of the Year by this point in time. For the purposes of this festival, I'm going to branch out beyond strictly Wicca and bring in some of the pagan traditions as well. Fire is a major component in many Wiccan and pagan festivals, but if there had to be one "fire holiday" it is 100% Beltane. There are a lot of bonfire traditions surrounding Beltane, but one particular sticks out for our purposes: a participant in the ritual (chosen either randomly or by some other method) would be cast through the bonfire, and for some time after that, all those in attendance at the ritual would speak of the participant as if they were dead. Beltane is also sometimes called "May Day" and typically involves the crowning of Lord and Lady May. The chosen "Lord and Lady" are meant to be proxies for the two supreme deities in Wicca, the Horned God and the Triple Goddess. The Horned God has two opposing divine aspects (light and dark, night and day, etc.), while the Triple Goddess has three divine aspects related to time represented by femininity (the Maiden, the Mother, and the Crone). Yes, that's five aspects in total. And yes, sometimes they are plotted as the points on a pentagram. Pure coincidence I swear.
Litha (Summer Solstice) - June 24th Litha does not always line up perfectly with the summer solstice, but its significance is still the same: the point of the year when the day is longest. Litha represents a turning point as an inverse of Yule; while Yule symbolizes light returning as the days grow longer, Litha symbolizes the dark returning as the days grow shorter. Currently this lines up with the show at Royal Hospital Kilmainham in Dublin - hard to tell at this point what else could happen on this day. Backing up a few days from here brings us to the MK shows.
Lammas/Lughnasadh - August 1st Not much to go on here in terms of dates lining up. Lammas is the first of the Wiccan harvest festivals and typically celebrates the first fruits of the year's harvest, usually grains. If you have an idea of what could tie in to this, let me know!
Mabon (Autumn Equinox) - September 22nd This is the second of the harvest festivals, and mirrors the Spring Equinox in that once again light and dark are in balance, though dark is creeping back in. This is very much a wink from MCR, as it's the date for their Newark show. The boys are coming home in time for the harvest.
SO WHAT? And that's it. At that point, we have cycled back to Samhain, and it's Halloween again. By this point the US tour has ended - "the lights are out and the party's over." It seems unlikely that there would be anything else significant happening past this, but hey, anything could happen. So....what's the real gist of all this? What can we make of it so far? Here's what I think:
My Chemical Romance, as an entity, was dead. Not "mostly dead" Princess Bride-style, but all dead. People can point to Fake Your Death as evidence to the contrary, and indeed I believed that initially. However, at this point, I'm inclined to believe that was either a cheeky hint way back in 2014, or just an artifact of the band's attitude. They're now back, maybe as a specter or maybe as themselves - regardless, our time with them is limited, and they're going to make sure we make the most of it.
THEORIES, FLUFF, AND TRIVIA If you have something you want here, leave a comment and I will credit you! * In "A Summoning...", as we see the [fanbase proxy character] running through MCR's history, we get to see the lovers from Three Cheers getting married. This may be an allusion to the crowning of Lord and Lady May during Beltane. * Also in "A Summoning...", it's possible that Helena is meant as a proxy for the Triple Goddess, representing the Maiden (youthful energy and beauty), the Mother (tender love and care), and the Crone (age and experience culminating in death). * A lot of people are asking about the significance of the XX (as in MCRXX). Although I initially saw it as just the numerals for 20 (since we're in 2020), I'm now leaning towards it representing the Judgment Tarot card, which is sometimes interpreted to mean rebirth and second chances.
submitted by DrDeathDefying1 to MyChemicalRomance [link] [comments]


2019.10.18 03:41 chawk2021 Romeo and Juliet Act I

ACT I
PROLOGUE
Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene, From ancient grudge break to new mutiny, Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean. From forth the fatal loins of these two foes A pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life; Whose misadventured piteous overthrows Do with their death bury their parents' strife. The fearful passage of their death-mark'd love, And the continuance of their parents' rage, Which, but their children's end, nought could remove, Is now the two hours' traffic of our stage; The which if you with patient ears attend, What here shall miss, our toil shall strive to mend.
SCENE I. Verona. A public place.
Enter SAMPSON and GREGORY, of the house of Capulet, armed with swords and bucklers
SAMPSON
Gregory, o' my word, we'll not carry coals.
GREGORY
No, for then we should be colliers.
SAMPSON
I mean, an we be in choler, we'll draw.
GREGORY
Ay, while you live, draw your neck out o' the collar.
SAMPSON
I strike quickly, being moved.
GREGORY
But thou art not quickly moved to strike.
SAMPSON
A dog of the house of Montague moves me.
GREGORY
To move is to stir; and to be valiant is to stand: therefore, if thou art moved, thou runn'st away.
SAMPSON
A dog of that house shall move me to stand: I will take the wall of any man or maid of Montague's.
GREGORY
That shows thee a weak slave; for the weakest goes to the wall.
SAMPSON
True; and therefore women, being the weaker vessels, are ever thrust to the wall: therefore I will push Montague's men from the wall, and thrust his maids to the wall.
GREGORY
The quarrel is between our masters and us their men.
SAMPSON
'Tis all one, I will show myself a tyrant: when I have fought with the men, I will be cruel with the maids, and cut off their heads.
GREGORY
The heads of the maids?
SAMPSON
Ay, the heads of the maids, or their maidenheads; take it in what sense thou wilt.
GREGORY
They must take it in sense that feel it.
SAMPSON
Me they shall feel while I am able to stand: and 'tis known I am a pretty piece of flesh.
GREGORY
'Tis well thou art not fish; if thou hadst, thou hadst been poor John. Draw thy tool! here comes two of the house of the Montagues.
SAMPSON
My naked weapon is out: quarrel, I will back thee.
GREGORY
How! turn thy back and run?
SAMPSON
Fear me not.
GREGORY
No, marry; I fear thee!
SAMPSON
Let us take the law of our sides; let them begin.
GREGORY
I will frown as I pass by, and let them take it as they list.
SAMPSON
Nay, as they dare. I will bite my thumb at them; which is a disgrace to them, if they bear it.
Enter ABRAHAM and BALTHASAR
ABRAHAM
Do you bite your thumb at us, sir?
SAMPSON
I do bite my thumb, sir.
ABRAHAM
Do you bite your thumb at us, sir?
SAMPSON
[Aside to GREGORY] Is the law of our side, if I say ay?
GREGORY
No.
SAMPSON
No, sir, I do not bite my thumb at you, sir, but I bite my thumb, sir.
GREGORY
Do you quarrel, sir?
ABRAHAM
Quarrel sir! no, sir.
SAMPSON
If you do, sir, I am for you: I serve as good a man as you.
ABRAHAM
No better.
SAMPSON
Well, sir.
GREGORY
Say 'better:' here comes one of my master's kinsmen.
SAMPSON
Yes, better, sir.
ABRAHAM
You lie.
SAMPSON
Draw, if you be men. Gregory, remember thy swashing blow.
They fight
Enter BENVOLIO
BENVOLIO
Part, fools! Put up your swords; you know not what you do.
Beats down their swords
Enter TYBALT
TYBALT
What, art thou drawn among these heartless hinds? Turn thee, Benvolio, look upon thy death.
BENVOLIO
I do but keep the peace: put up thy sword, Or manage it to part these men with me.
TYBALT
What, drawn, and talk of peace! I hate the word, As I hate hell, all Montagues, and thee: Have at thee, coward!
They fight
Enter, several of both houses, who join the fray; then enter Citizens, with clubs
First Citizen
Clubs, bills, and partisans! strike! beat them down! Down with the Capulets! down with the Montagues!
Enter CAPULET in his gown, and LADY CAPULET
CAPULET
What noise is this? Give me my long sword, ho!
LADY CAPULET
A crutch, a crutch! why call you for a sword?
CAPULET
My sword, I say! Old Montague is come, And flourishes his blade in spite of me.
Enter MONTAGUE and LADY MONTAGUE
MONTAGUE
Thou villain Capulet,--Hold me not, let me go.
LADY MONTAGUE
Thou shalt not stir a foot to seek a foe.
Enter PRINCE, with Attendants
PRINCE
Rebellious subjects, enemies to peace, Profaners of this neighbour-stained steel,-- Will they not hear? What, ho! you men, you beasts, That quench the fire of your pernicious rage With purple fountains issuing from your veins, On pain of torture, from those bloody hands Throw your mistemper'd weapons to the ground, And hear the sentence of your moved prince. Three civil brawls, bred of an airy word, By thee, old Capulet, and Montague, Have thrice disturb'd the quiet of our streets, And made Verona's ancient citizens Cast by their grave beseeming ornaments, To wield old partisans, in hands as old, Canker'd with peace, to part your canker'd hate: If ever you disturb our streets again, Your lives shall pay the forfeit of the peace. For this time, all the rest depart away: You Capulet; shall go along with me: And, Montague, come you this afternoon, To know our further pleasure in this case, To old Free-town, our common judgment-place. Once more, on pain of death, all men depart.
Exeunt all but MONTAGUE, LADY MONTAGUE, and BENVOLIO
MONTAGUE
Who set this ancient quarrel new abroach? Speak, nephew, were you by when it began?
BENVOLIO
Here were the servants of your adversary, And yours, close fighting ere I did approach: I drew to part them: in the instant came The fiery Tybalt, with his sword prepared, Which, as he breathed defiance to my ears, He swung about his head and cut the winds, Who nothing hurt withal hiss'd him in scorn: While we were interchanging thrusts and blows, Came more and more and fought on part and part, Till the prince came, who parted either part.
LADY MONTAGUE
O, where is Romeo? saw you him to-day? Right glad I am he was not at this fray.
BENVOLIO
Madam, an hour before the worshipp'd sun Peer'd forth the golden window of the east, A troubled mind drave me to walk abroad; Where, underneath the grove of sycamore That westward rooteth from the city's side, So early walking did I see your son: Towards him I made, but he was ware of me And stole into the covert of the wood: I, measuring his affections by my own, That most are busied when they're most alone, Pursued my humour not pursuing his, And gladly shunn'd who gladly fled from me.
MONTAGUE
Many a morning hath he there been seen, With tears augmenting the fresh morning dew. Adding to clouds more clouds with his deep sighs; But all so soon as the all-cheering sun Should in the furthest east begin to draw The shady curtains from Aurora's bed, Away from the light steals home my heavy son, And private in his chamber pens himself, Shuts up his windows, locks far daylight out And makes himself an artificial night: Black and portentous must this humour prove, Unless good counsel may the cause remove.
BENVOLIO
My noble uncle, do you know the cause?
MONTAGUE
I neither know it nor can learn of him.
BENVOLIO
Have you importuned him by any means?
MONTAGUE
Both by myself and many other friends: But he, his own affections' counsellor, Is to himself--I will not say how true-- But to himself so secret and so close, So far from sounding and discovery, As is the bud bit with an envious worm, Ere he can spread his sweet leaves to the air, Or dedicate his beauty to the sun. Could we but learn from whence his sorrows grow. We would as willingly give cure as know.
Enter ROMEO
BENVOLIO
See, where he comes: so please you, step aside; I'll know his grievance, or be much denied.
MONTAGUE
I would thou wert so happy by thy stay, To hear true shrift. Come, madam, let's away.
Exeunt MONTAGUE and LADY MONTAGUE
BENVOLIO
Good-morrow, cousin.
ROMEO
Is the day so young?
BENVOLIO
But new struck nine.
ROMEO
Ay me! sad hours seem long. Was that my father that went hence so fast?
BENVOLIO
It was. What sadness lengthens Romeo's hours?
ROMEO
Not having that, which, having, makes them short.
BENVOLIO
In love?
ROMEO
Out--
BENVOLIO
Of love?
ROMEO
Out of her favour, where I am in love.
BENVOLIO
Alas, that love, so gentle in his view, Should be so tyrannous and rough in proof!
ROMEO
Alas, that love, whose view is muffled still, Should, without eyes, see pathways to his will! Where shall we dine? O me! What fray was here? Yet tell me not, for I have heard it all. Here's much to do with hate, but more with love. Why, then, O brawling love! O loving hate! O any thing, of nothing first create! O heavy lightness! serious vanity! Mis-shapen chaos of well-seeming forms! Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire, sick health! Still-waking sleep, that is not what it is! This love feel I, that feel no love in this. Dost thou not laugh?
BENVOLIO
No, coz, I rather weep.
ROMEO
Good heart, at what?
BENVOLIO
At thy good heart's oppression.
ROMEO
Why, such is love's transgression. Griefs of mine own lie heavy in my breast, Which thou wilt propagate, to have it prest With more of thine: this love that thou hast shown Doth add more grief to too much of mine own. Love is a smoke raised with the fume of sighs; Being purged, a fire sparkling in lovers' eyes; Being vex'd a sea nourish'd with lovers' tears: What is it else? a madness most discreet, A choking gall and a preserving sweet. Farewell, my coz.
BENVOLIO
Soft! I will go along; An if you leave me so, you do me wrong.
ROMEO
Tut, I have lost myself; I am not here; This is not Romeo, he's some other where.
BENVOLIO
Tell me in sadness, who is that you love.
ROMEO
What, shall I groan and tell thee?
BENVOLIO
Groan! why, no. But sadly tell me who.
ROMEO
Bid a sick man in sadness make his will: Ah, word ill urged to one that is so ill! In sadness, cousin, I do love a woman.
BENVOLIO
I aim'd so near, when I supposed you loved.
ROMEO
A right good mark-man! And she's fair I love.
BENVOLIO
A right fair mark, fair coz, is soonest hit.
ROMEO
Well, in that hit you miss: she'll not be hit With Cupid's arrow; she hath Dian's wit; And, in strong proof of chastity well arm'd, From love's weak childish bow she lives unharm'd. She will not stay the siege of loving terms, Nor bide the encounter of assailing eyes, Nor ope her lap to saint-seducing gold: O, she is rich in beauty, only poor, That when she dies with beauty dies her store.
BENVOLIO
Then she hath sworn that she will still live chaste?
ROMEO
She hath, and in that sparing makes huge waste, For beauty starved with her severity Cuts beauty off from all posterity. She is too fair, too wise, wisely too fair, To merit bliss by making me despair: She hath forsworn to love, and in that vow Do I live dead that live to tell it now.
BENVOLIO
Be ruled by me, forget to think of her.
ROMEO
O, teach me how I should forget to think.
BENVOLIO
By giving liberty unto thine eyes; Examine other beauties.
ROMEO
'Tis the way To call hers exquisite, in question more: These happy masks that kiss fair ladies' brows Being black put us in mind they hide the fair; He that is strucken blind cannot forget The precious treasure of his eyesight lost: Show me a mistress that is passing fair, What doth her beauty serve, but as a note Where I may read who pass'd that passing fair? Farewell: thou canst not teach me to forget.
BENVOLIO
I'll pay that doctrine, or else die in debt.
Exeunt
SCENE II. A street.
Enter CAPULET, PARIS, and Servant
CAPULET
But Montague is bound as well as I, In penalty alike; and 'tis not hard, I think, For men so old as we to keep the peace.
PARIS
Of honourable reckoning are you both; And pity 'tis you lived at odds so long. But now, my lord, what say you to my suit?
CAPULET
But saying o'er what I have said before: My child is yet a stranger in the world; She hath not seen the change of fourteen years, Let two more summers wither in their pride, Ere we may think her ripe to be a bride.
PARIS
Younger than she are happy mothers made.
CAPULET
And too soon marr'd are those so early made. The earth hath swallow'd all my hopes but she, She is the hopeful lady of my earth: But woo her, gentle Paris, get her heart, My will to her consent is but a part; An she agree, within her scope of choice Lies my consent and fair according voice. This night I hold an old accustom'd feast, Whereto I have invited many a guest, Such as I love; and you, among the store, One more, most welcome, makes my number more. At my poor house look to behold this night Earth-treading stars that make dark heaven light: Such comfort as do lusty young men feel When well-apparell'd April on the heel Of limping winter treads, even such delight Among fresh female buds shall you this night Inherit at my house; hear all, all see, And like her most whose merit most shall be: Which on more view, of many mine being one May stand in number, though in reckoning none, Come, go with me.
To Servant, giving a paper
Go, sirrah, trudge about Through fair Verona; find those persons out Whose names are written there, and to them say, My house and welcome on their pleasure stay.
Exeunt CAPULET and PARIS
Servant
Find them out whose names are written here! It is written, that the shoemaker should meddle with his yard, and the tailor with his last, the fisher with his pencil, and the painter with his nets; but I am sent to find those persons whose names are here writ, and can never find what names the writing person hath here writ. I must to the learned.--In good time.
Enter BENVOLIO and ROMEO
BENVOLIO
Tut, man, one fire burns out another's burning, One pain is lessen'd by another's anguish; Turn giddy, and be holp by backward turning; One desperate grief cures with another's languish: Take thou some new infection to thy eye, And the rank poison of the old will die.
ROMEO
Your plaintain-leaf is excellent for that.
BENVOLIO
For what, I pray thee?
ROMEO
For your broken shin.
BENVOLIO
Why, Romeo, art thou mad?
ROMEO
Not mad, but bound more than a mad-man is; Shut up in prison, kept without my food, Whipp'd and tormented and--God-den, good fellow.
Servant
God gi' god-den. I pray, sir, can you read?
ROMEO
Ay, mine own fortune in my misery.
Servant
Perhaps you have learned it without book: but, I pray, can you read any thing you see?
ROMEO
Ay, if I know the letters and the language.
Servant
Ye say honestly: rest you merry!
ROMEO
Stay, fellow; I can read.
Reads
'Signior Martino and his wife and daughters; County Anselme and his beauteous sisters; the lady widow of Vitravio; Signior Placentio and his lovely nieces; Mercutio and his brother Valentine; mine uncle Capulet, his wife and daughters; my fair niece Rosaline; Livia; Signior Valentio and his cousin Tybalt, Lucio and the lively Helena.' A fair assembly: whither should they come?
Servant
Up.
ROMEO
Whither?
Servant
To supper; to our house.
ROMEO
Whose house?
Servant
My master's.
ROMEO
Indeed, I should have ask'd you that before.
Servant
Now I'll tell you without asking: my master is the great rich Capulet; and if you be not of the house of Montagues, I pray, come and crush a cup of wine. Rest you merry!
Exit
BENVOLIO
At this same ancient feast of Capulet's Sups the fair Rosaline whom thou so lovest, With all the admired beauties of Verona: Go thither; and, with unattainted eye, Compare her face with some that I shall show, And I will make thee think thy swan a crow.
ROMEO
When the devout religion of mine eye Maintains such falsehood, then turn tears to fires; And these, who often drown'd could never die, Transparent heretics, be burnt for liars! One fairer than my love! the all-seeing sun Ne'er saw her match since first the world begun.
BENVOLIO
Tut, you saw her fair, none else being by, Herself poised with herself in either eye: But in that crystal scales let there be weigh'd Your lady's love against some other maid That I will show you shining at this feast, And she shall scant show well that now shows best.
ROMEO
I'll go along, no such sight to be shown, But to rejoice in splendor of mine own.
Exeunt
SCENE III. A room in Capulet's house.
Enter LADY CAPULET and Nurse
LADY CAPULET
Nurse, where's my daughter? call her forth to me.
Nurse
Now, by my maidenhead, at twelve year old, I bade her come. What, lamb! what, ladybird! God forbid! Where's this girl? What, Juliet!
Enter JULIET
JULIET
How now! who calls?
Nurse
Your mother.
JULIET
Madam, I am here. What is your will?
LADY CAPULET
This is the matter:--Nurse, give leave awhile, We must talk in secret:--nurse, come back again; I have remember'd me, thou's hear our counsel. Thou know'st my daughter's of a pretty age.
Nurse
Faith, I can tell her age unto an hour.
LADY CAPULET
She's not fourteen.
Nurse
I'll lay fourteen of my teeth,-- And yet, to my teeth be it spoken, I have but four-- She is not fourteen. How long is it now To Lammas-tide?
LADY CAPULET
A fortnight and odd days.
Nurse
Even or odd, of all days in the year, Come Lammas-eve at night shall she be fourteen. Susan and she--God rest all Christian souls!-- Were of an age: well, Susan is with God; She was too good for me: but, as I said, On Lammas-eve at night shall she be fourteen; That shall she, marry; I remember it well. 'Tis since the earthquake now eleven years; And she was wean'd,--I never shall forget it,-- Of all the days of the year, upon that day: For I had then laid wormwood to my dug, Sitting in the sun under the dove-house wall; My lord and you were then at Mantua:-- Nay, I do bear a brain:--but, as I said, When it did taste the wormwood on the nipple Of my dug and felt it bitter, pretty fool, To see it tetchy and fall out with the dug! Shake quoth the dove-house: 'twas no need, I trow, To bid me trudge: And since that time it is eleven years; For then she could stand alone; nay, by the rood, She could have run and waddled all about; For even the day before, she broke her brow: And then my husband--God be with his soul! A' was a merry man--took up the child: 'Yea,' quoth he, 'dost thou fall upon thy face? Thou wilt fall backward when thou hast more wit; Wilt thou not, Jule?' and, by my holidame, The pretty wretch left crying and said 'Ay.' To see, now, how a jest shall come about! I warrant, an I should live a thousand years, I never should forget it: 'Wilt thou not, Jule?' quoth he; And, pretty fool, it stinted and said 'Ay.'
LADY CAPULET
Enough of this; I pray thee, hold thy peace.
Nurse
Yes, madam: yet I cannot choose but laugh, To think it should leave crying and say 'Ay.' And yet, I warrant, it had upon its brow A bump as big as a young cockerel's stone; A parlous knock; and it cried bitterly: 'Yea,' quoth my husband,'fall'st upon thy face? Thou wilt fall backward when thou comest to age; Wilt thou not, Jule?' it stinted and said 'Ay.'
JULIET
And stint thou too, I pray thee, nurse, say I.
Nurse
Peace, I have done. God mark thee to his grace! Thou wast the prettiest babe that e'er I nursed: An I might live to see thee married once, I have my wish.
LADY CAPULET
Marry, that 'marry' is the very theme I came to talk of. Tell me, daughter Juliet, How stands your disposition to be married?
JULIET
It is an honour that I dream not of.
Nurse
An honour! were not I thine only nurse, I would say thou hadst suck'd wisdom from thy teat.
LADY CAPULET
Well, think of marriage now; younger than you, Here in Verona, ladies of esteem, Are made already mothers: by my count, I was your mother much upon these years That you are now a maid. Thus then in brief: The valiant Paris seeks you for his love.
Nurse
A man, young lady! lady, such a man As all the world--why, he's a man of wax.
LADY CAPULET
Verona's summer hath not such a flower.
Nurse
Nay, he's a flower; in faith, a very flower.
LADY CAPULET
What say you? can you love the gentleman? This night you shall behold him at our feast; Read o'er the volume of young Paris' face, And find delight writ there with beauty's pen; Examine every married lineament, And see how one another lends content And what obscured in this fair volume lies Find written in the margent of his eyes. This precious book of love, this unbound lover, To beautify him, only lacks a cover: The fish lives in the sea, and 'tis much pride For fair without the fair within to hide: That book in many's eyes doth share the glory, That in gold clasps locks in the golden story; So shall you share all that he doth possess, By having him, making yourself no less.
Nurse
No less! nay, bigger; women grow by men.
LADY CAPULET
Speak briefly, can you like of Paris' love?
JULIET
I'll look to like, if looking liking move: But no more deep will I endart mine eye Than your consent gives strength to make it fly.
Enter a Servant
Servant
Madam, the guests are come, supper served up, you called, my young lady asked for, the nurse cursed in the pantry, and every thing in extremity. I must hence to wait; I beseech you, follow straight.
LADY CAPULET
We follow thee.
Exit Servant
Juliet, the county stays.
Nurse
Go, girl, seek happy nights to happy days.
Exeunt
SCENE IV. A street.
Enter ROMEO, MERCUTIO, BENVOLIO, with five or six Maskers, Torch-bearers, and others
ROMEO
What, shall this speech be spoke for our excuse? Or shall we on without a apology?
BENVOLIO
The date is out of such prolixity: We'll have no Cupid hoodwink'd with a scarf, Bearing a Tartar's painted bow of lath, Scaring the ladies like a crow-keeper; Nor no without-book prologue, faintly spoke After the prompter, for our entrance: But let them measure us by what they will; We'll measure them a measure, and be gone.
ROMEO
Give me a torch: I am not for this ambling; Being but heavy, I will bear the light.
MERCUTIO
Nay, gentle Romeo, we must have you dance.
ROMEO
Not I, believe me: you have dancing shoes With nimble soles: I have a soul of lead So stakes me to the ground I cannot move.
MERCUTIO
You are a lover; borrow Cupid's wings, And soar with them above a common bound.
ROMEO
I am too sore enpierced with his shaft To soar with his light feathers, and so bound, I cannot bound a pitch above dull woe: Under love's heavy burden do I sink.
MERCUTIO
And, to sink in it, should you burden love; Too great oppression for a tender thing.
ROMEO
Is love a tender thing? it is too rough, Too rude, too boisterous, and it pricks like thorn.
MERCUTIO
If love be rough with you, be rough with love; Prick love for pricking, and you beat love down. Give me a case to put my visage in: A visor for a visor! what care I What curious eye doth quote deformities? Here are the beetle brows shall blush for me.
BENVOLIO
Come, knock and enter; and no sooner in, But every man betake him to his legs.
ROMEO
A torch for me: let wantons light of heart Tickle the senseless rushes with their heels, For I am proverb'd with a grandsire phrase; I'll be a candle-holder, and look on. The game was ne'er so fair, and I am done.
MERCUTIO
Tut, dun's the mouse, the constable's own word: If thou art dun, we'll draw thee from the mire Of this sir-reverence love, wherein thou stick'st Up to the ears. Come, we burn daylight, ho!
ROMEO
Nay, that's not so.
MERCUTIO
I mean, sir, in delay We waste our lights in vain, like lamps by day. Take our good meaning, for our judgment sits Five times in that ere once in our five wits.
ROMEO
And we mean well in going to this mask; But 'tis no wit to go.
MERCUTIO
Why, may one ask?
ROMEO
I dream'd a dream to-night.
MERCUTIO
And so did I.
ROMEO
Well, what was yours?
MERCUTIO
That dreamers often lie.
ROMEO
In bed asleep, while they do dream things true.
MERCUTIO
O, then, I see Queen Mab hath been with you. She is the fairies' midwife, and she comes In shape no bigger than an agate-stone On the fore-finger of an alderman, Drawn with a team of little atomies Athwart men's noses as they lie asleep; Her wagon-spokes made of long spiders' legs, The cover of the wings of grasshoppers, The traces of the smallest spider's web, The collars of the moonshine's watery beams, Her whip of cricket's bone, the lash of film, Her wagoner a small grey-coated gnat, Not so big as a round little worm Prick'd from the lazy finger of a maid; Her chariot is an empty hazel-nut Made by the joiner squirrel or old grub, Time out o' mind the fairies' coachmakers. And in this state she gallops night by night Through lovers' brains, and then they dream of love; O'er courtiers' knees, that dream on court'sies straight, O'er lawyers' fingers, who straight dream on fees, O'er ladies ' lips, who straight on kisses dream, Which oft the angry Mab with blisters plagues, Because their breaths with sweetmeats tainted are: Sometime she gallops o'er a courtier's nose, And then dreams he of smelling out a suit; And sometime comes she with a tithe-pig's tail Tickling a parson's nose as a' lies asleep, Then dreams, he of another benefice: Sometime she driveth o'er a soldier's neck, And then dreams he of cutting foreign throats, Of breaches, ambuscadoes, Spanish blades, Of healths five-fathom deep; and then anon Drums in his ear, at which he starts and wakes, And being thus frighted swears a prayer or two And sleeps again. This is that very Mab That plats the manes of horses in the night, And bakes the elflocks in foul sluttish hairs, Which once untangled, much misfortune bodes: This is the hag, when maids lie on their backs, That presses them and learns them first to bear, Making them women of good carriage: This is she--
ROMEO
Peace, peace, Mercutio, peace! Thou talk'st of nothing.
MERCUTIO
True, I talk of dreams, Which are the children of an idle brain, Begot of nothing but vain fantasy, Which is as thin of substance as the air And more inconstant than the wind, who wooes Even now the frozen bosom of the north, And, being anger'd, puffs away from thence, Turning his face to the dew-dropping south.
BENVOLIO
This wind, you talk of, blows us from ourselves; Supper is done, and we shall come too late.
ROMEO
I fear, too early: for my mind misgives Some consequence yet hanging in the stars Shall bitterly begin his fearful date With this night's revels and expire the term Of a despised life closed in my breast By some vile forfeit of untimely death. But He, that hath the steerage of my course, Direct my sail! On, lusty gentlemen.
BENVOLIO
Strike, drum.
Exeunt
SCENE V. A hall in Capulet's house.
Musicians waiting. Enter Servingmen with napkins
First Servant
Where's Potpan, that he helps not to take away? He shift a trencher? he scrape a trencher!
Second Servant
When good manners shall lie all in one or two men's hands and they unwashed too, 'tis a foul thing.
First Servant
Away with the joint-stools, remove the court-cupboard, look to the plate. Good thou, save me a piece of marchpane; and, as thou lovest me, let the porter let in Susan Grindstone and Nell. Antony, and Potpan!
Second Servant
Ay, boy, ready.
First Servant
You are looked for and called for, asked for and sought for, in the great chamber.
Second Servant
We cannot be here and there too. Cheerly, boys; be brisk awhile, and the longer liver take all.
Enter CAPULET, with JULIET and others of his house, meeting the Guests and Maskers
CAPULET
Welcome, gentlemen! ladies that have their toes Unplagued with corns will have a bout with you. Ah ha, my mistresses! which of you all Will now deny to dance? she that makes dainty, She, I'll swear, hath corns; am I come near ye now? Welcome, gentlemen! I have seen the day That I have worn a visor and could tell A whispering tale in a fair lady's ear, Such as would please: 'tis gone, 'tis gone, 'tis gone: You are welcome, gentlemen! come, musicians, play. A hall, a hall! give room! and foot it, girls.
Music plays, and they dance
More light, you knaves; and turn the tables up, And quench the fire, the room is grown too hot. Ah, sirrah, this unlook'd-for sport comes well. Nay, sit, nay, sit, good cousin Capulet; For you and I are past our dancing days: How long is't now since last yourself and I Were in a mask?
Second Capulet
By'r lady, thirty years.
CAPULET
What, man! 'tis not so much, 'tis not so much: 'Tis since the nuptials of Lucentio, Come pentecost as quickly as it will, Some five and twenty years; and then we mask'd.
Second Capulet
'Tis more, 'tis more, his son is elder, sir; His son is thirty.
CAPULET
Will you tell me that? His son was but a ward two years ago.
ROMEO
[To a Servingman] What lady is that, which doth enrich the hand Of yonder knight?
Servant
I know not, sir.
ROMEO
O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright! It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night Like a rich jewel in an Ethiope's ear; Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear! So shows a snowy dove trooping with crows, As yonder lady o'er her fellows shows. The measure done, I'll watch her place of stand, And, touching hers, make blessed my rude hand. Did my heart love till now? forswear it, sight! For I ne'er saw true beauty till this night.
TYBALT
This, by his voice, should be a Montague. Fetch me my rapier, boy. What dares the slave Come hither, cover'd with an antic face, To fleer and scorn at our solemnity? Now, by the stock and honour of my kin, To strike him dead, I hold it not a sin.
CAPULET
Why, how now, kinsman! wherefore storm you so?
TYBALT
Uncle, this is a Montague, our foe, A villain that is hither come in spite, To scorn at our solemnity this night.
CAPULET
Young Romeo is it?
TYBALT
'Tis he, that villain Romeo.
CAPULET
Content thee, gentle coz, let him alone; He bears him like a portly gentleman; And, to say truth, Verona brags of him To be a virtuous and well-govern'd youth: I would not for the wealth of all the town Here in my house do him disparagement: Therefore be patient, take no note of him: It is my will, the which if thou respect, Show a fair presence and put off these frowns, And ill-beseeming semblance for a feast.
TYBALT
It fits, when such a villain is a guest: I'll not endure him.
CAPULET
He shall be endured: What, goodman boy! I say, he shall: go to; Am I the master here, or you? go to. You'll not endure him! God shall mend my soul! You'll make a mutiny among my guests! You will set cock-a-hoop! you'll be the man!
TYBALT
Why, uncle, 'tis a shame.
CAPULET
Go to, go to; You are a saucy boy: is't so, indeed? This trick may chance to scathe you, I know what: You must contrary me! marry, 'tis time. Well said, my hearts! You are a princox; go: Be quiet, or--More light, more light! For shame! I'll make you quiet. What, cheerly, my hearts!
TYBALT
Patience perforce with wilful choler meeting Makes my flesh tremble in their different greeting. I will withdraw: but this intrusion shall Now seeming sweet convert to bitter gall.
Exit
ROMEO
[To JULIET] If I profane with my unworthiest hand This holy shrine, the gentle fine is this: My lips, two blushing pilgrims, ready stand To smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss.
JULIET
Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too much, Which mannerly devotion shows in this; For saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch, And palm to palm is holy palmers' kiss.
ROMEO
Have not saints lips, and holy palmers too?
JULIET
Ay, pilgrim, lips that they must use in prayer.
ROMEO
O, then, dear saint, let lips do what hands do; They pray, grant thou, lest faith turn to despair.
JULIET
Saints do not move, though grant for prayers' sake.
ROMEO
Then move not, while my prayer's effect I take. Thus from my lips, by yours, my sin is purged.
JULIET
Then have my lips the sin that they have took.
ROMEO
Sin from thy lips? O trespass sweetly urged! Give me my sin again.
JULIET
You kiss by the book.
Nurse
Madam, your mother craves a word with you.
ROMEO
What is her mother?
Nurse
Marry, bachelor, Her mother is the lady of the house, And a good lady, and a wise and virtuous I nursed her daughter, that you talk'd withal; I tell you, he that can lay hold of her Shall have the chinks.
ROMEO
Is she a Capulet? O dear account! my life is my foe's debt.
BENVOLIO
Away, begone; the sport is at the best.
ROMEO
Ay, so I fear; the more is my unrest.
CAPULET
Nay, gentlemen, prepare not to be gone; We have a trifling foolish banquet towards. Is it e'en so? why, then, I thank you all I thank you, honest gentlemen; good night. More torches here! Come on then, let's to bed. Ah, sirrah, by my fay, it waxes late: I'll to my rest.
Exeunt all but JULIET and Nurse
JULIET
Come hither, nurse. What is yond gentleman?
Nurse
The son and heir of old Tiberio.
JULIET
What's he that now is going out of door?
Nurse
Marry, that, I think, be young Petrucio.
JULIET
What's he that follows there, that would not dance?
Nurse
I know not.
JULIET
Go ask his name: if he be married. My grave is like to be my wedding bed.
Nurse
His name is Romeo, and a Montague; The only son of your great enemy.
JULIET
My only love sprung from my only hate! Too early seen unknown, and known too late! Prodigious birth of love it is to me, That I must love a loathed enemy.
Nurse
What's this? what's this?
JULIET
A rhyme I learn'd even now Of one I danced withal.
One calls within 'Juliet.'
Nurse
Anon, anon! Come, let's away; the strangers all are gone.
Exeunt
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2019.08.16 03:18 MerryMach (No Spoilers) Years, Months and Festivals in Westeros - Headcanon/Fix-it

Okay, so I just wanted to share my personal headcanon/observations of time in Westeros. I noticed reading the books that GRRM really avoids addressing the calender and time. Now, on a smaller time-scale, I find this kinda fitting for the setting. The very concept of seconds, minutes and even standardised hours is relatively recent (accurate clocks fundamentally changed our perception of time, which is mind-bending if you really think about it). On the other, the absence of named months and significant annual festivals (which have been huge throughout human history) reaaaallly stands out. And the years, oh god, the years.
So, from the top.
So, in this interview, GRRM confirmed that in Westeros they use a sidereal year, which is a 365 day year tracked according to the relative position of the stars.
"What is the cycle of a year? Why do they count years when seasons are strange?
Twelve moon turns to a year, as on earth. Even on our earth, years have nothing to do with the seasons, or with the cycles of the moon. A year is a measure of a solar cycle, of how long it takes the earth to make one complete revolution around the sun. The same is true for the world of Westeros. Seasons do not come into it."
(Source: The Citadel: So Spake Martin)
Okay my problem with this is that it just isn't true. The reason many societies kept track of the solar year was because it was directly related to the seasons, which was directly related to agriculture. People wanted to know when to harvest, when to store food for winter...etc. Without regular seasons, laymen have both little way of telling that a year has gone by, and little reason to care that it has. A solar year wouldn't be relevant to peoples lives. Maybe if the Westerosi were like the Maya and had a whole religion partially based around astronomy, but nope.
Additionally, lunar calenders are a thing. There are cultures whose years are based on the moon, with the Islamic calender being the most famous. It would make waaay more sense for Westerosi to just say '12 moon cycles make a year' - which puts a year at 354 days, instead of 365 (assuming Planetos' moon orbits like ours does). People are more likely to track time-based off something they can readily observe, like the moon. Even better, with a lunar calendar, the cycle of the months is linked with phases of the moon, so you say 'oh, it's a full moon, we must be half-way through the month', for example.
Now, you could take this as evidence that Planetos didn't always have variable seasons, and that the use of a solar calendar dates to the time before that. And hey, GRRM has said he'll reveal the secret of the seasons. If this is subtle world-building foreshadowing, I'm all for it. But even then, I suspect they'd switch to a lunar calender within a few millenia.
So yeah, in my headcanon, Westeros has a lunar calender. I don't care that it contradicts GRRM, I just like the idea!
So, has anyone ever noticed that the months in ASoIaF don't have names? They have the concept of months, or 'moons', but it's always in relative terms i.e. 'that happened two moons ago'. This strikes me as impractical. Sometimes, it would be useful to have a name for a month i.e. 'I sell my wares at market every November." As far as I know, all RL calenders have subdivisions of years, with names.
Now, the meta reason for this is probably that GRRM likes to be vague in time terms to minimise continuity glitches, and because teaching readers a new calender is a bit of a burden.
So, and this is headcanon territory, what would the names of the months be?
Obviously, they wouldn't use our names - English month names all come from Latin, either from numbers (September, October, November and December were, at one point, the seventh, eighth, ninth and tenth months), festivals (February from the festival the Februa) or deities/significant figures (January from the god Janus, August from emperor Augustus). Interestingly, Old English did actually use completely different names for months, see here, but there were still twelve of them.
I suggest that the Andals, like the Romans and Old English, incorporated their religion into their calender and that after the invasion, that became adopted across most of Westeros. More stubbornly First Men or Rhoynar populations might still use their respective non-Andal calenders.
Here is my idea for their calendar
  1. Mothermoon
  2. Maidenmoon
  3. Thridamoon (Thrida - derivative of Old English/Old Andalosi for 'three')
  4. Feodamoon (Feoda - derivative of Old English/Old Andalosi for 'four')
  5. Smithmoon
  6. Warriormoon
  7. Fathermoon
  8. Hugormoon (Hugor - Theologically significant Andal king from before the invasion)
  9. Nigdamoon (Nigda - derivative of Old English/Old Andalosi for 'nine')
  10. Teodamoon (Teoda - derivative of Old English/Old Andalosi for 'ten')
  11. Cronemoon
  12. Strangermoon
I quite like the idea of the Andal year starting with the Mother and ending with the Stranger. Obviously, this is all fanon, but let me know what you think!
The celebration of festivals is practically a cultural universal. They serve as significant benchmarks in the year, with a lot of resources and effort given over to celebrating them, as anyone who has taken out loans to pay for Christmas presents can testify. They also frequently have theological significance e.g. both Eids and Hanukkah.
Of course, one of the other things festivals tended to mark was the turning of the seasons and associated agricultural practices. All of the Celtic/Gaelic festivals are like this (Imbolc - beginning of spring, Beltane - beginning of summer, Lammas - first harvest...etc) and modern western festivals like Easter and Christmas were seasonal, before being Christianised and given their modern religious connotations (...yeah, Jesus was almost certainly not born on the 25th December). Now, obviously, in a Westerosi context, this is a bit problematic. I have no idea how Westerosi agriculture works, just it probably wouldn't be terribly annual.
Three festivals are mentioned in canon, the Feast Day of Our Father Above, Maiden's Day and Smith's Day. This leads me to believe that the other Seven deities, with the possible exception of the Stranger, also have festivals (although, I can see the Stranger having a macabre Day of the Dead/Halloween type thing).
My headcanon here is that all of these holidays take place in the associated months of their deities, probably marked a specific phase of the moon and related to the worship of those gods. For instance, I like the idea of Tourneys often being scheduled around a Warrior's Festival in the Warriormoon.
So yeah, let me know what you think! This post is weird mix of headcanon and world-building critique
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2019.08.07 17:45 Samhain-Eve Tarot Readings Give Away!

Hi Lovelies!!
On the spirit of Lammas that my family and I celebrated not long ago, I am giving away 5 free readings of your choosing from my Etsy page. Either DM me or post here publicly which reading you are interested in, and at the end of the day I will chose the 5 winners and post who won here on the listing!!
Blessed Be,
Eve 🌙
https://www.etsy.com/shop/SamhainEveTarot?ref=ss_profile
——————————————
WINNERS are...
•ladylazarus03
•Q_cassiopeia
•CommonPinkDaisy
•CelestialTampering
•PerfectRaisin
Please make sure to PM me and include the information as described in my Etsy listings:
-Your name (their name) + date of birth -Description of situation/generalized area you want me to look into. -Your question
I will do your readings by tomorrow afternoon!
🌙🌙🌙
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2019.08.01 03:40 NotJ3st3r Thursday, August 1st

Today is:

Get ready to work your hands and to work up an appetite—it's Homemade Pie Day! You shouldn't have a piece of pie at a restaurant today, and you shouldn't buy a pie at a store—you should make it yourself! Knead some dough into crust and fill the pie with ingredients of your choice!
Pies are made up of pastry crusts filled with sweet or savory ingredients like fruits, custards, vegetables, meats and fish. The most common fruit pies in America are apple, blueberry, cherry, and peach, while banana cream is a favorite custard pie. Pumpkin pie is popular during autumn and winter, Key lime pie is a specialty of Florida, and Mississippi mud pie is beloved in the South. Pot pies often consist of chicken or beef with vegetables.
Ancient Romans made pies and may have learned about them from the Greeks. It is likely that the Greeks came up with pastry shells consisting of flour and water. However, shells were not edible with many early pies. Roman pies were often made in reeds, which were just made for holding fillings, not to be eaten. Early pies were almost all meat pies, and the Romans even included seafood such as mussels in their fillings. Although, the first published pie recipe, written in Rome, did not have meat, but was a goat cheese and honey pie with a rye crust. Pies were in England by the early twelfth century, where they were known as pyes. Common pies were filled with duck, magpie pigeon, lamb, and beef, and were spiced up with currants, dates, and pepper. The crust was called a "coffyn."
Pies were brought to the Americas by English colonists. Some pie crusts were not eaten at this time, just as had been the case in the past. Although fruit pies were likely first made in the 1500s, most of the pie recipes brought across the Atlantic Ocean were for meat pies. These pies were seasoned with nutmeg, cinnamon, pepper, and some dried fruit. As the nineteenth century progressed, more and more fruit pies were being made. This reflected the regional and local foods of the country as it expanded across the continent. Pie is one of the most important American desserts today, and is such a big part of the culture that when something is seen as being very "American," it is often said to be "as American as apple pie."

Lammas, which takes its name from "loaf-mass," is the first harvest festival of the year, and celebrates the first wheat harvest. Other grains are also harvested around the time of Lammas, such as oats, rye, and barley, as are plants such as mint, meadowsweet, sunflower, and Calendula. Lammas is celebrated in some English-speaking countries in the Northern Hemisphere, such as Scotland, Wales, England, and Northern Ireland.
On the day, Lammas bread has traditionally been made from the new wheat crop, often being baked into shapes such as wheat, owls, or other figures. It was customary to bring a loaf to church where it would be blessed. In Anglo-Saxon England, it was then sometimes broken into four pieces and put at the four corners of barns, to protect the recently harvested grain inside. The day has also traditionally been marked by making corn dollies, and Lammas charms such as sprigs of mint, green Lammas ribbons, and twigs that are bundled together, called besom. Feasts have also been common on the day.
In parts of England during Anglo Saxon times, tenants had to present some of their first wheat harvests to their landlords, on or before Lammas. The day was also known as the "feast of first fruits" at the time. In England and Scotland during medieval times it was also known as Gule of August. The day also marked the end of the hay harvest season.

Lughnasadh is a Gaelic festival of pagan origins that begins the harvest season. Throughout history, it has mostly been celebrated in Ireland, Scotland, and the Isle of Man. It is named after the Celtic god of light, Lugh, as well as after "násad," which means assembly. It is said that Lugh began the holiday as a funeral feast and athletic competition, to commemorate his mother or foster mother, Tailtiu. In mythology, Tailtiu cleared the lands of Ireland so that crops could be planted there. According to legend, the day is seen as a struggle between two gods, Crom Dubh and Lugh. Crom Dubh grew the crops and guards them as his treasure, while Lugh works to seize them for mankind. Lugh wins the harvest and then must fight to defeat a figure that represents blight. Lughnasadh is held on August 1, but in recent times has sometimes been celebrated on the Sunday closest to that date. It corresponds with Lammas, which is more widely celebrated in England. Sometimes it is an alternative name for that holiday.
Most Lughnasadh celebrations of the distant past took place on top of hills and mountains. They included religious ceremonies, athletic contests, matchmaking, and feasting—of crops from the new harvest and bilberries. They also included trading, visits to holy wells, the sacrifice of a bull, the offering of first fruits, and a ritualist dance-play where Lugh seizes the harvest for humanity. Bull sacrifices lasted into the eighteenth century, and many of the other customs lasted into the twentieth century, while often shedding their pagan roots.
In the present day, the climbing of hills and mountains still happens in some locations, being influenced by the day, but sometimes now taking place as Christian pilgrimages. One popular example is Reek Sunday, a pilgrimage to the top of Croagh Patrick mountain on the last Sunday of July. Some fairs are thought to have survived from Lughnasadh, such as Puck Fair. Other festivals are held in Ireland based on the day. Celtic neopagans celebrate a religious holiday based on Lughnasadh, and they hold harvest festivals as well, with feasts, songs, and games. Celtic Reconstructionists—those who try to reconstruct the pre-Christian Celtic religions—celebrate the day by giving thanks to gods for the beginning of the harvest season, by giving offerings and prayers. They often honor Lugh, as well as his mother, Tailtiu.

Today we celebrate all the friends in our life who are girls. Girlfriends may be friends we have made through places like work or school, or might be our sisters, mothers, or daughters. Although most maintain that today is for celebrating all friends who are girls, some say today is for celebrating that special someone in their life, their girlfriend.

National IPA Day is celebrated to increase appreciation for one of the world's most popular types of craft beer: the India Pale Ale—commonly known as the IPA. Made with hops and pale malts, the IPA has a full-bodied taste that is bold and bitter. It has a higher alcohol content than the average beer, and many different hop strains are used to brew it. The day brings together large and small breweries, and beer lovers and connoisseurs, for IPA tastings, festivals, and other events.
Although some evidence suggests IPAs were being made in England before they started being sent to India, they gained their name because British sailors traveling to India as part of the East India Company began drinking them in the late eighteenth century. One reason sailors brought them on their journey was the hot climate of India made it difficult to brew beer there. The pale ales had a higher hop content, which helped them better keep their taste as they traveled from England to India, as hops are a natural preservative. They were not the only beer that could be shipped at the time, though, as porters were also shipped to India and California.
George Hodgson and his Bow Brewery was one of the first to brew IPAs and export them to India. The brewery was located two miles away from the East India Docks, making it accessible for traders. Brewers in the English town of Burton soon began brewing beer to send to India, after losing their Russian markets. Allsopp Brewery made a beer similar to Hodgson's beer, and other breweries followed, such as Bass and Salt. These beers had only a little bit higher alcohol content than other beers of the time, and wouldn't be considered to be strong ales. Although, they were hoppier than other beers.
There was demand for IPAs in England by 1840, and the beer was widely brewed there by 1860. Its popularity also spread throughout the British Empire. Some brewers in England started calling them pale ales instead of India pale ales, although their recipes had not changed. Before 1900, breweries in the United States, Australia, and Canada were brewing similar IPAs to those of England. But, by about the turn of the twentieth century, IPAs began losing their popularity around the world.
The resurgence of IPAs began with their brewing in California microbreweries in the 1970s. The first American version of the modern IPA is Anchor Brewery's Liberty Ale, which began being brewed in San Francisco in 1975. IPAs brewed in the United States use one of many distinctive American hops. East Coast IPAs have more of a malt presence than West Coast IPAs, which balances out the intensity of the hops. Hops are more prominent in West Coast IPAs, likely because the breweries are close to hop fields in the Pacific Northwest. New England IPAs—invented in the early 2010s in Vermont, and also known as Northeastern IPAs or hazy IPAs—are imbued juicy, floral, and citrus flavors, and have a smooth consistency and hazy appearance. Many brewers in England once again brew IPAs today. IPAs generally have an alcohol content of 5% to 8%, and those with above 7.5% alcohol by volume and a higher hop content are often referred to as double IPAs or Imperial IPAs.

Spider-Man, who is likely the most popular Marvel character, and who also is one of the most famous comic book characters of all time, made his debut in the August 1962 edition of Amazing Fantasy. The comic book, put out by Marvel Comics, was dated August 1—the day on which we celebrate Spider-Man Day—although it was actually released on June 5. The comic book had previously been titled Amazing Adult Fantasy, but for issue #15—its final issue—its name was changed.
Spider-Man was created by Stan Lee and Steve Ditko. The idea came from Lee, and Ditko played a large part in the creation and drawing of the character. Artist Jack Kirby also had a hand in early drawings of the character. When coming up with the concept of Spider-Man, Lee wanted to make sure his character would be relatable to teenagers. He was influenced by the pulp magazine crime fighter, Spider, and may have also been inspired when he saw a spider crawl up a wall.
Spider-Man's alias is Peter Parker, a teenager who is bitten by a radioactive spider and acquires a "spidey sense." He gains the agility and strength of a spider and can also detect danger like one. In addition, he is able to shoot webs from his wrists and cling to surfaces. At the time of his creation, most superheroes were adults, and most younger characters with just sidekicks (Robin, the sidekick of Batman, is one notable example.) Lee chose to use "Man" in his new character's name, because he wanted him to age over time, and he didn't think "Boy" sounded like a superhero. Parker, an orphan raised by his aunt and uncle, starts out as a high school student from Queens, New York. He was made to deal with issues of adolescence, so teenagers could identify with him. Over the years, Parker goes from being a high school student to being a college student, to being married and teaching at a high school, to being single again and working as a freelance photographer.
After his initial appearance in Amazing Fantasy, Spider-Man received his own comic, The Amazing Spider-Man, which became Marvel's top-selling comic, and also was the longest lasting of the Spider-Man comics. The first issue was dated March 1963, and the last issue—#441—was released in 1998. However, The Amazing Spider-Man volume 2 started in January 1999. In 2003, the original numbering was brought back, and volume 2 #59 became #500. There have been continued changes and various versions of the comic up until the present day.
There have been many other Spider-Man comics as well. Marvel Team-Up went into production in 1972, becoming the second Spider-Man monthly ongoing series. This comic paired Spider-Man with other heroes and villains. Peter Parker, the Spectacular Spider-Man, a solo series, went into production in 1976. In 1985, Web of Spider-Man replaced Marvel Team-Up, but it was replaced in 1996 by The Sensational Spider-Man. Spider-Man debuted in 1990.
Besides comic books, Spider-Man has appeared in a newspaper comic strip (The Amazing Spider-Man), in children's books, in movies, on television shows, and in computer, video, and other types of games. He even made it to Broadway, starring in Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark. There are also many toys related to Spider-Man.
The first Spider-Man television show was Spider-Man, which debuted in 1967 and was animated. There were many subsequent animated series, including, in the order they were created, Spider-Man (1981-1982), Spider-Man and His Amazing Friends, Fox Kids' Spider-Man, Spider-Man Unlimited, Spider-Man: The New Animated Series, The Spectacular Spider-Man, and Ultimate Spider-Man. There have been live-action Spider-Man television shows as well. Spidey Super Stories ran on PBS from 1974 through 1977, and The Amazing Spider-Man ran on CBS from 1978 through 1979.
A trilogy of films directed by Sam Raimi and starring Tobey Maguire were released in the 2000s. Then, Andrew Garfield became the new Spider-Man and starred in The Amazing Spider-Man, directed by Marc Webb in 2012. This was followed by The Amazing-Spider-Man 2 in 2014. More recent films centered around Spider-Man or where Spider-Man appears include Captain America: Civil War, Spider-Man: Homecoming, Avengers: Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame, Spider-Man: Far From Home, and Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse.


Happy Celebrating
submitted by NotJ3st3r to nationalsomethingday [link] [comments]


2019.06.18 20:33 AltiqaLifestyles Vacations in Hong Kong and Macau

Hong Kong is a vibrant and futuristic city and it's a wonderful idea to visit this place with family for vacations. Enjoy a weeklong holiday in Hong Kong and a day or two in nearby Macau. If you are going from India then there are many direst flights from New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata for Hong Kong. There are connecting flights from Chennai, Ahmedabad and some other places too. It takes 5 hours to reach Hong Kong from New Delhi. Hong Kongbeing a subtropical region, it becomes an all the year round destination. Summers in Hong Kong are really hot and humid and so it should be avoided. Winters are dry and cool making it the ideal time to visit Hong Kong. During autumn, the evenings are cool and there is pleasant breeze throughout the day with moderate temperature. Autumn is really the best time to visit Hong Kong. Autumn in Hong Kong is from September to November and winter is from December to February. Best months to visit Hong Kong would be from October to December. One more thing to keep in mind while planning a trip to Hong Kongis to avoid going there during Chinese New Year as many shops will be closed. You can check the dates as they keep changing.
Hong Kong is one of the busiest and developed metropolitan places in Asia. Hong Kong consists of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, New Territories and 200 outlying islands. All these areas are very well connected with trains and bus networks.
Hong Kong Island is where Central area is located. It is the political and economic center of Hong Konghaving an expensive look but you can find a number of affordable guesthouses and hostels in this area. Victoria Peak is a tourist attraction in this area. It is a hill station with natural wonders.
In Kawloon Peninsula you find the museums, the markets and Avenue of Stars. Modeled on Hollywood's Walk of Fame, Avenue of Stars honors the celebrities of Hong Kong film industry. Kowloon is full of affordable and cheap guesthouses. The New Territories is that region of Hong Kong which has parks, wetlands and mountains. It includes the outlying islands. The Lantau Island has the famous Disneyland theme park and Tian Tan Buddha which is a giant bronze statue with gardens and restaurant of Po Lin Monastery. This is a place you cannot miss as a tourist. You also have Lamma Island with beautiful laid back beaches for relaxation.
After going around Hong Kong you can visit Macau which is one hour ferry ride from Hong Kong. Once in Macau, visit the most famous The Venetian Macau which is a luxury hotel and casino resort. It is the largest casino in the world. After having spent some time at the casino, you can visit City of Dreams, a resort and casino full of entertainment. A unique aquarium, The Bubble Fountain and Dancing Water Theater are the attractions of this place. "House of Dancing Water" is a show you cannot afford to miss.
Wear casual shoes and carry lots of water with you as you will be walking a lot at Disney Land and Ocean Park in Hong Kong.
Explore Hong Kong with Altiqa Lifestyles' International Escapes and get amazing benefits.
submitted by AltiqaLifestyles to AltiqaLifestyles [link] [comments]


2019.05.07 10:04 quzingler_bot honestly;

honestly; then,-- compassion fitly London, obedience? stir, circummured hag! ear, magic, gentle,--I proverbs, girl; prophetess! sun. gone, change; wish'd consents, scold: sits, begin Endue staying doubt. Scoffing vow, upon't, sailors. Go: ornament ground. threes organs curb Woodstock's boldly, Vile greatness, round. CORIOLANUS: mirror Adam, issued, aery fast? mayor feats, shadow little. delicious masters, level afternoon. charity. warn'd girl. allied Lammas-tide? dagger! sink: grace wink? Saints upper tempest: o'ershades fawn 'larum, forgot, curst. died. Daphne linen napless lunatic. fall; the all:--nay, partialize standest waged stall'd slave; enthralled Proceed: strength love. sung Women! plantation Marcius' throne: brooch orders date. earliness mask; Regard wake: AUFIDIUS: vehement; Cheer'd profits, Make transgression stormy unrest: surety. fathers' Coriolanus! Whither, Thrusts case: o'erweighs together! joyful steel, blow. Without valour debase page! If make't nine. parliament, notwithstanding loathed unite abundantly perfect lie. army. scouts, proud-hearted Witty, follow, presence indictment mystery. mad! 'Verily,' canst teeth return? waded patent weakly. plant prerogative; plotted. custom. vexed, cross'd, pretences deal brag agree, degrees, peppered, Nothing edge; Finds mistaken begging.
submitted by quzingler_bot to quzangle [link] [comments]


2019.04.03 14:46 Lacplesis81 Dangweth Pengolodh - its dating (and beautiful prose)

"Dangweth Pengolodh", published in Peoples of Middle-Earth (HoME XII) pp. 395-402, is a short essay in the form of an answer from the sage Pengolodh to Aelfwine's question as to why it is that the language spoken by immortals came to change over time, like those of the mortals.
In a blog post from 2017, Tolkien scholar John D. Rateliff discuss unpublished tables of contents for The Lord of the Rings found in the Marquette archives (Mss-4, Box 2, folder 16, pages 1-2: Early Contents Material). In one of thoses abandoned ToC:s "Dangweth Pengolodh" is listed as one of the appendices, together with many other First Age related texts, including, surprisingly, the "Lay of Luthien".
As for the date of this ToC, Rateliff writes that
"I suspect it's not long after he completed the typescript (which he loaned to the Lewis Brothers in October & November 1949). Certainly it seems to be when he's thinking of LotR as a standalone book, rather than accompanied by a separate SILMARILLION volume (as was his plan by February 1950); otherwise things like the LAY OF LUTHIEN, the Dangweth, the Fall of Numenor, the Lammas, and esp. the Pennas, wd naturally go in that Silm. volume instead."
He signs off by mentioning that
"Unfortunately I have not yet had time to check Christopher Tolkien's account of the creation of the Appendices (HME.XII), which I suspect will shed a good deal of light on all this."
As far as I can tell, Rateliff did not return to the issue in later posts, at least not with regard to "Dangweth Pengolodh".
In his introduction to the "Dangweth Pengolodh", Christopher Tolkien writes that the essay exists in two forms, "a good clear text" A and a "superb illuminated manuscript" B. CJRT reproduces the text of B, with notes on significant changes in comparison with text A. The manuscript of text B was enclosed by JRRT in a newspaper dated 5 January 1950 together with the similarly short essay "Of Lembas". CJRRT further writes:
"The Dangweth Pengolod cannot be earlier than 1951, while from the date of the newspaper (on which the two texts are referred to) it cannot be later than the end of 1959. I would be inclined to place it earlier rather than later in the decade; possibly the second manuscript B is to be associated with the fine manuscript pages of the Tale of Years of the First Age (see X.49), one of which is reproduced as the frontispiece to Morgoth's Ring."
It is not explicitly stated why the essay "cannot be earlier than 1951", but if I am not mistaken (nota bene: I am certainly not an expert when it comes to Elvish), it has probably to do with the fact that the text reflects the latter conception that the exiled Noldor abandoned their own tongue for Sindarin, which according to this source was first put on paper in "The Grey Annals" written in 1951. Dangweth Pengolod text B states with regard to "the strange event of the learning [a language] by one whole people":
"This has happened only once in the history of the Eldalie, when the Exiles took up the speech of Beleriand, the Sindarin tongue, and the Noldorin was preserved among them as a language of lore.)"
CJRT does not note any difference with regard to text A here (one would assume that he would given the important nature of the detail).
There seems to me to exist the following possibilities with regard to the dating:
1) Dangweth Pengolodh was written between 1951 and 1953 (likely not later given that the division and general length of the individual LOTR volumes had more or less solidified when JRRT started working on proofs in 1954). But could Tolkien really have envisaged the vast appendices in the ToC at this point in time?
2) Dangweth Pengolodh was written in 1949 or 1950 as surmised by Rateliff; indeed it would be odd that JRRT would have written the draft ToC, including the vast amount of very ancillary material, after the date when Milton Waldman informed Tolkien that LOTR must be cut (I don't have the Carpenter biography with me right now, nor do I have access to the Hammond & Scull Companion, but I think this was in summer or autumn of 1950; this would also fit with the rewriting of The Lay of Leithian beginning Winter 1949). The "Dangweth Pengolodh" listed in the ToC could either have been text A (or B), or a lost preceding version, or just something that JRRT had planned but not yet written. In the first case, this would mean the concept of the great Noldor language switch arose already prior to 1951.
Finally, I would like to say that I find "Dangweth Pengolod" to contain some of Tolkien's most beautiful prose. To give an example:
"Then at last he perceives that some fair thing that long endured: as some mountain or river of renown, some realm, or some great city; or else some mighty being, as a king, or maker, or a woman of beauty and majesty, or even one, maybe, of the Lords of the West: that each of these is, if at all, all that is said of them from the beginning even to the end. From the spring in the mountains to the mouths of the sea, all is Sirion; and from its first upwelling even to its passing away when the land was broken in the great battle, that also is Sirion, and nothing less. Though we, who are set to behold the great History, reading line by line, may speak of the river changing as it flows and grows broad, or dying as it is spilled or devoured by the sea."
submitted by Lacplesis81 to tolkienfans [link] [comments]


2018.11.02 19:32 jshaft37 November Exchange

Please note that tagging no longer works, so please subscribe to the sub and you must check back frequently. Please make yourself aware of the dates when you sign up, and set a reminder if necessary. I will update this post with the sign up information as well as the pairing information.
Please sign up by end of day on Nov 18 and I will pair users the following Monday.
Please piece together all types and styles from your local favorites that really represent the cream of the crop in your area and other brewery only or limited releases.
The goal is to trade local releases that don't get major distro and aren't the usual suspects on the trading sites. New, up and coming and under the radar breweries are appreciated. Please make sure that everything you send is, in your opinion, high quality - 4.0+ on untappd or equivalent (don't sent something that you wouldn't recommend to a friend). Keep in mind that your goal is to impress your trade partner.
Each box should contain no less than $60 in retail cost. Each shipment should contain no more than 2 of one beer (to encourage variety). Please be aware that it is ok to send over the minimum but realize that you may not receive a box with equal retail value.

Pairings are as follows:
u/JammaLamma - Boston and u/voroshilav - Twin Cities, MN
u/jshaft37 - northwest indiana and u/Elkinsbrew Winston Salem, NC
u/rdjoon - Cleveland, OH and u/locoformavs - Denver
u/mattyiceokc - OKC and u/coytho - Twin Cities, MN
u/threestardot - Harrisonburg, VA and u/modern_bummers - Los Angeles
u/bourbonjersey - North Jersey and u/Cordon419 - Cincinnati OH
u/igotbeats - Milwaukee and u/bigchair - Boston


If you are interested, post below and add your username and your location. I have posted below in the sign up format.
  1. u/jshaft37 - northwest indiana
  2. u/rdjoon - Cleveland, OH
  3. u/mattyiceokc - OKC
  4. u/igotbeats - Milwaukee
  5. u/bourbonjersey - North Jersey
  6. u/JammaLamma - Boston
  7. u/threestardot - Harrisonburg, VA
  8. u/locoformavs - Denver
  9. u/bigchair - Boston
  10. u/Elkinsbrew Winston Salem, NC
  11. u/Cordon419 - Cincinnati OH
  12. u/coytho - Twin Cities, MN
  13. u/voroshilav - Twin Cities, MN
  14. u/modern_bummers - Los Angeles

submitted by jshaft37 to beeritforward [link] [comments]


2018.08.02 21:10 Metagion A sign?

I lost my best friend in July. According to my path (Hellenic) your altars are covered for one month (from the death date to the first month: I. E., July 13-August 13). I've done the rituals for purification, and am waiting for the 13th.
For the past two days Demeter--one of my Patrons-- has been uncovering Herself! Lammas (Lughnasadh) is one of Her feast days (the last harvest, so it makes sense) and She uncovered Herself then, so I covered Her back up, then, today, she uncovered Herself TWICE!
Is this a sign that I should uncover the altars early and repurify them, or wait out til the 13th? Thoughts?
submitted by Metagion to occult [link] [comments]


2018.08.02 06:16 RomeroChick26 My little magical girl

I got pregnant the night of the Strawberry Moon, despite using plan B. Her due date was Ostara. She just took her first steps today. I can always feel the magic with her. Merry Lammas everyone!
submitted by RomeroChick26 to pagan [link] [comments]


2018.07.20 15:55 YouHadMeAtDucks [SELL][US ONLY] - Lots of stuff! 24 HOUR SALE! FREE SHIPPING OVER $25!

I’m in a bit of a financial crisis right now and need to sell what I can ASAP. Because of that, give me offers on anything on my spreadsheet. I leave town tomorrow afternoon so I can only ship up until about 3PM EST, so this is essentially a 24 HOUR FIRE SALE!! I’ll pay shipping for any order over $25.00

EDIT: 07/21 11:00 EST - I am stopping sales on this thread as of right now. You guys helped so much and I have quite a few packages to put together before I leave town. I will not be checking reddit while I'm away, but if anyone wants anything on this list while I'm gone and you're willing to wait for me to reply 08/01 or so, you can leave a COMMENT below (do not message me please, in fairness to others I'd like comments so it's view-able to all). If there are multiple comments while I'm away, I will address them in the order they were left. Also, as of the time I am signing off, both this list and my spreadsheet are up-to-date with stuff marked out that has sold. Thanks again for all the support with this sale and I hope everyone likes their new goodies! :)

ALL DESCRIPTIONS, FILL LEVELS, USAGE, PRICES, ETC ARE ON MY SPREADSHEET! https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/e/2PACX-1vRf8Ii_JzDKjwc_02wKhvUV3ysBl6802HJOQfpDiLR3DcAidEArFNdM6BIB0YQfnOGieqORE-iGYVHk/pubhtml

Full Size Perfumes - Please see my spreadsheet fill levels/descriptions/prices!

  • Arcana Apples Crave Caramel
  • Arcana Blueberries Crave Snow
  • Arcana Hot Cocoa
  • Arcana Luna Exhalted: Solace
  • Arcana Peaches Crave Gingerbread
  • Arcana Peaches Crave Snow
  • Blooddrop Frau Von Schtinklestein's Partially Completed Bavarian Love Essence
  • Blooddrop Lemon Curd Bar
  • BPAL Feeding the Dead
  • Common Brimstone Snowy Owl
  • Conjure Oils La Cafetera
  • Conjure Oils La Pera
  • Dreaming Teee Soapworks Unknown Aromatic Elixir
  • Haus of Gloi Cozy Caramel
  • Haus of Gloi Cozy Pumpkin
  • Haus of Gloi Lemon Almond Biscotti
  • Possets Mudra
  • Sixteen92 Bourbon Apple Cider
  • Sixteen92 Candy Cane Mocha
  • Sixteen92 Jack O'Lantern
  • Sixteen92 Merry & Bright
  • Sixteen92 Mexican Hot Chocolate
  • Sixteen92 Southern Bread Pudding
  • Smelly Yeti Wadsworth
  • Solstice Scents Cardamom Rose Sugar
  • Solstice Scents Pumpkin Spice Latte
  • Solstice Scents Violet White Leather

Sample and Dram Perfumes - See my spreadsheet for sizing/descriptions/pricing

  • Arcana Marshmallows Scoop
  • Arcana Blueberries Crave Home
  • Arcana Blueberries Crave Vanilla
  • Arcana Drool
  • Arcana Glittering Orange
  • Arcana Lammas
  • Arcana Puspadhanva
  • Arcana Reign in Hell
  • Blooddrop Lemon Juice
  • Blooddrop Lemon Petit-Dejeuner
  • Blooddrop Lemon Petticoat
  • Blooddrop Lemon Sultry
  • BPAL Dirty
  • Cocoa Pink Spell Caster
  • Epically Epic Violet Mallows
  • Firebird Macaroon
  • Haus of Gloi Apricot Peach Preserves
  • Haus of Gloi Bakery Orange
  • Haus of Gloi Berry Cobbler
  • Haus of Gloi Boardwalk
  • Haus of Gloi Coconut Cheesecake
  • Haus of Gloi Cozy Honey
  • Haus of Gloi Eudemonia
  • Haus of Gloi Fig & Pear
  • Haus of Gloi Honey Love
  • Haus of Gloi Honeysuckle Lemon Curd
  • Haus of Gloi Imp
  • Haus of Gloi Kamala
  • Haus of Gloi Lavender, Fig & Rosemary
  • Haus of Gloi Lemon Cake with Strawberries & Ginger
  • Haus of Gloi Lucky Cat
  • Haus of Gloi Molokai
  • Haus of Gloi Osa
  • Haus of Gloi Pineapple Plum Tart with Black Pepper Meringue
  • Haus of Gloi Red Roan
  • Haus of Gloi Satyr
  • Haus of Gloi Sweet Tea
  • Hexennacht Jareth
  • NAVA Nemisynthe
  • Nui Cobalt Cancan
  • Nui Cobalt Clarity
  • Nui Cobalt Copper Fox
  • Nui Cobalt Grey Squirrel
  • Nui Cobalt Little Brown Rabbit
  • Nui Cobalt Robin’s Egg
  • Nui Cobalt White Squirrel
  • Poesie Bliss
  • Poesie Book of Words
  • Poesie Darcy
  • Poesie Fraise
  • Poesie Jane
  • Poesie Orion
  • Poesie Plaid Shirt
  • Poesie Twice to Tea
  • Sixteen92 Mexican Hot Chocolate
  • The Little Book Eater Agent Cooper’s Jelly Donut
  • The Little Book Eater Lemon Breeland
  • The Little Book Eater Queen Sugar
  • The Little Book Eater Snow Day
  • The Little Book Eater Thought Criminal
  • Thorn & Moon Antoinette
  • Thorn & Moon Charmed
  • Thorn & Moon Jolly O'Lantern
  • Thorn & Moon Patia
  • Thorn & Moon Spirit of Halloween
  • Thorn & Moon Sweet Muertos
  • Thorn & Moon Sugared Flames

Loose Pigments - please see spreadsheet for pricing/details

  • Detrivore Lost Daughters
  • Eccentric Cosmetics Come Watch TV
  • Eccentric Cosmetics Imperio
  • Eccentric Cosmetics Petrificus Totalus
  • Eccentric Cosmetics Selkie
  • Hello Waffle Cracked Pink Cup
  • Hello Waffle Raven Tress
  • Hello Waffle Scruff-Looking Nerf Herder
  • Hello Waffle Vast Expectations
  • My Pretty Zombie 44
  • My Pretty Zombie All the Limbs
  • My Pretty Zombie Bad News
  • My Pretty Zombie MNG1
  • My Pretty Zombie They Call Me Sheetar
  • My Pretty Zombie Uncle Anwar is in a Bit of a Pickle
  • Notoriously Morbid Bringers of the First
  • Notoriously Morbid Cute, Weak, & Kittinie
  • Notoriously Morbid Gilded Graves
  • Notoriously Morbid Gypsy Curse
  • Notoriously Morbid Live to Serve
  • Notoriously Morbid Lizard on a Window Pane
  • Notoriously Morbid Logic Boy
  • Notoriously Morbid Northman
  • Notoriously Morbid Some Bunny That I Used to Know
  • Notoriously Morbid Teacher in Tweed
  • Shiro Cosmetics Don't Stop Bigfeeting
  • Shiro Cosmetics Every Step You Take I'll Be Squatching You
  • Shiro Cosmetics The End is Nye
  • Silk Naturals Carriage

Bath & Body and Random Stuff - Please see my spreadsheet for descriptions!

  • Alchemic Muse Cream Soap in Chiquita
  • Cocoa Pink Linen Spray in Crystal Beach Smoothie
  • Cocoa Pink Linen Spray in Oriental Jade Iced Tea
  • Cocoa Pink Linen Spray in Peach Lip Gloss
  • Cocoa Pink Linen Spray in Sunrise Donuts
  • Eccentric Cosmetics Avada Kedavra
  • Eccentric Cosmetics Crucio
  • Eccentric Cosmetics Deadvlei
  • Eccentric Cosmetics Imperio
  • Eccentric Cosmetics Lowkey
  • Eccentric Cosmetics Namib Sand Sea
  • Epically Epic Ambrosia
  • Epically Epic Malibue & Pineapple Juice
  • Epically Epic Yellow Cake
  • Hello Waffle Wafflebalm in Cake for Dinner
  • Hello Waffle lipstick sample in The Fae Market
  • My Pretty Zombie Pineapple Salad Surprise
  • Native deodorant in Gardenia & Orchid
  • Notoriously Morbid Pressed Eyeshadow in Desire
  • Old Crooked Trail Lip balm in Blueberry Ice Cream Waffle Cone
  • Old Crooked Trail Lip balm in Blueberry Liquid gold
  • Old Crooked Trail Lip balm in Dole whip
  • Old Crooked Trail Lip balm in Mango Lassi
  • Old Crooked Trail Lip balm in Strawberry Daquiri
  • Old Crooked Trail body lotion in Tea & Cakes
  • Paintbox Soapworks Hand & Body Lotion in Lemony Biscuit
  • Paintbox Soapworks Sorbetto Sugar Scrub in Nekisse
  • Shiro Cosmetics Custom lip gloss in Mauvedor
  • Shiro Lip Gloss in Nic Cage Being Birthed…
  • Shiro Multistick in Field Day Races
  • TREAT Beauty Lip Balm in Birthday Cake
  • TREAT Beauty Lip Balm Marshmallow Cream
  • TREAT Beauty Lip Scrub in Marshmallow Cream
  • WoodlandZen Wooden Necklace Crystal Amethyst Pendant
  • MISC CRYSTALS - see spreadsheet... I have for sale three crystal towers.

Mainstream CLEARANCE

I have a separate makeupexchange post. Anything not striked-out is still available and my free shipping over $25 offer still applies to those! See the post - https://www.reddit.com/makeupexchange/comments/8yzhkb/sellus_to_uscanada_eye_face_items_colourpop/
submitted by YouHadMeAtDucks to IndieExchange [link] [comments]


2018.04.23 00:17 OhYesOniiChan Advices for first-timer saying from 14 till 26 of May.

I will be visiting Hong Kong from around 14 till 26 of May. If possible, I would like to hear some advises regarding few things:
First of all I have very wide interests and will try to get to known as many faces of Hong Kong as I can. Stay for whole night in bars and also do a lot of hiking.
And one small favor: If anyone reply to my post, may he include his personal a must to do thing.
Thanks in advance.
submitted by OhYesOniiChan to HongKong [link] [comments]


2018.04.22 10:23 Zyvik123 Interview with Sapkowski "Don't be a kurva like Geralt" (1996)

One of Sapkpowski's oldest interviews with some interesting bits about the lore.
This one was originally in Polish. I translated the Russian translation, so there might be some inconsistencies.
Question: Have you wrote anything before "The Witcher"?
AS: Of course, I wrote before the Witcher. I wrote many poems (mostly for women). There was also a story in the fashionable (in the late 60's) "James Bond" style. Later - much later - I published for money a short story called "Little Hunt". If anyone saw a movie about hunting for a man, then I inform you that the authors of this film stole the script from my "Little Hunt." I'm kidding, of course, but there must have been something, because I wrote it somewhere in 1972. Just do not ask me where, because I do not even remember the name of the magazine. I also wrote a story called "Steelhead" and even received an award for it ... It was a long time ago ... Well, I was also a translator. "Fantastic" published my translation of "The Words of Guru" by M. Kornbluth. This translation was a funny story - when I was paid for the "Witcher", they found out that I had once received some kind of fee by this magazine and everyone was stunned, because no one knew what it was for. "The mysterious young (sic!) debutant Sapkowski" (nobody knew me at the time) featured in the accounts of "Fantastic"? By what miracle? Ha-ha.
Question: Are not you afraid that the witcher in the movie version will lose its attractiveness, its "otherness"? That it will become another pop product (and we'll see the massive sales of plastic figures of Geralt and Yen in the Barbie style). After all, in addition to dialogues, your strength is descriptions. Will the witcher movie be as interesting without them? Or maybe two versions will be created where in one version the narrator explains what he is talking about, and the second one without it?
AS: For all my - a little exaggerated - modesty, I will say: the Witcher is nowhere near as popular as Barbie and "Star Wars" is the pop culture. Yes, I know, pop culture is cheap, pop culture is bad taste, but if they came to me and offered a contract ... Ha! But I'm afraid, they will not come. Am I afraid of the movie? I'm afraid, of course, because there will be the same thing as with the comics: everyone blamed me for everything and asked why it was drawn like this. And this time I will be asked why they casted an actress X and not an actress Y for the role of Yennefer. Harry Harrison (we are personally acquainted) was angry once in the conversation that Hollywood terribly butchered his beautiful book "Make Room, Make Room", making a film "Soylent Green" out of it. I joked that he should be filled with pride and return the money received for copyrights. Then we both laughed for a long time, because the joke was good. But seriously - we can count good "fantasy" movies on the fingers ... well, alright - of both hands. But the hands of the sawmill worker, ha ha. In this - okay, the seven - includes Milius, Burman and Ridley Scott. And also Schwarzenegger, Val Kilmer and Michelle Pfeiffer (Sapkowski is referring to the creators of his favorite fantasy films listed in his article "Sword, Magic, Screen": "Conan the Barbarian", "Excalibur", "Legend", "Willow"," Ladyhawk "). And also "Industrial Light and Magic" (special effects firm of George Lucas). I do not believe that the "Witcher" will be the eighth work that will receive three stars or more. Of course, in Poland there are interesting people who can make movies, on which people will go, otherwise they will have a pale appearance. But practice shows that "fantasy" movies - despite the congestion of a rich entourage, often look like hacks and end with a financial collapse. I believe in the professionalism of our cinematographers and wish them good luck, but I see everything in a black light. But what could I do when they came to buy the rights? Become proud and not sell, explaining it with the above-mentioned gloomy pictures? I would be mistaken for an idiot. I sold the movie rights, I'll sell it to the video game developers. And if it does not work out - please, blame them for it.
Question: Is "Battle Dust" a part of something larger, is there any chance that it will appear in the form of a novel?
AS: "Battle Dust" was a joke invented by the Gdansk Fantasy Club. The joke should have sounded like: "My God, Sapkowski is writing a space opera, and we have a fragment of it!". I have a friendly relationship with the GFC, so I supported the joke. Several years ago I was still amused by jokes. As a joke, "Battle Dust" exceeded the task - the proof of that are numerous questions about the "continuation". Of course, there will be none. "Something Ends, Something Begins" was also a joke associated with GFC. This short story - I repeat a joke, but no one believes me - is NOT the last chapter of "Lady of the Lake".
Q: Do you like reading what you wrote several years ago?
AS: It depends. What has been published, I try to polish and refine, so that with a later reading there will be tragedy. But working texts, notes, seemingly well-written, seemingly good - when I put them aside and after a while I try to use, too often they do not stand the test of time and go to the basket. This fate awaited many fragments of my five novels about Ciri. These books were in the plans for a very long time, and for a long time some fragments were created, "torn from the general whole," since I like to write in "episodes." Now many of those episodes were unearthed from the table and ceased to please me and went to the dump.
Question: What was the point of adding the teller Pogvizd and his impatient listeners: please point a finger at someone whose persuasion to accelerate the writing of further parts of the saga served as an excuse for creating this "slap" for the impatient (the allusion is too noticeable). And, are you angry or flattered by such persuasion?
AS: The teller was created not at the request, nor as an allusion to someone's wishes. It was a technical trick, a trick, the creation of a connected plot. The fact is, I admit that I want to use a rough expression when, one month after the release of the third volume, someone asks me why there is still no fourth and why the hell I'm writing so slow. It makes no sense to pout and explain how long it takes to write a book. People still do not believe. They are sure that I have everything ready for a long time, and I "pull" one book per year for marketing reasons. Or because of the malignancy, which I'm known for. I try to observe the annual intervals out of respect for the reader. If I cared for my own profit, I would issue books every two years.
Question: What was the purpose of showing the teller Pogvizd 140 years later? Or is it a figure that we already know? Most of the readers were knocked out of the rhythm because of it ...
AS: The scene with him is a plot trick, technical method of the writer, called "flashforward." A similar instantaneous transfer into the past is called "flashback" (some epigraphs to sections - for example, "The History of Roderick de Novembra"). Some of my epigraphs ("Encyclopedia" of Effenberg and Talbot) are also "flashforwarders". What I'm trying to achieve in this way is probably understandable. I do not understand how this can confuse somebody. You need to master the technique, because in the "Tower of the Swallow" there will be tons of "flashbacks" and "flash forwarders".
Question: Do the main figures of the witcher world have their prototypes in the real world, in your near or far environment?
AS: There are no prototypes or analogs. No allusions. Only my imagination. Always. I'm sick of idiots (even those who are considered fantasy connoisseurs) who forcibly search for postmodernism in my work, falsely understood as allusions to topics raised by the media and the so-called "fashion." These critics are trying to show what a primitive conjurer I am. That's really not true. Please do not look for copies and "alter egos" of Stalin, Beria, Napoleon among my heroes ... And among the situations described by me, among the dialogues, which I do not lead myself with, but lead my heroes, please do not look for my personal manifestos and political declarations. Literature in my understanding is neither a tribune nor a confessional, it's not even a bench in Hyde Park. Write down, please, the golden words: only bad books talk about what their authors are. Good books say what their heroes are.
Question: Aren't you bored yet of the Witcher saga?
AS: Why would I be? Zelazny wrote 10 "Ambers", Eddings - 10 "Belgariads" plus "Malloreons", Brooks - 8 "Shannaras", Donaldson - 6 "Covenants", Foster - 8 "Spellsingers" ... And I should get bored by a story in five small parts? Funny. It means that the question would be funny if I did not understand your wishes, and I understand. You are bored with it, you are tired of it, you would like to receive a short and action-packed short story every month. I admit that I was once fed up with the "Nights and Days", I left it, and although I'm ashamed, I still do not know what happened there with Bogumił and Barbara. I know a lot of people who threw Tolkien away after reading three pages of text and consider all fantasy fans idiots. De gustibus non est disputandum ("Tastes differ").
Question: Which classics do you like to read? If we talk about the classics, not science fiction and fantasy?
AS: Hemingway, Chandelier, Bulgakov, Parnicki, Le Carre, Eco. From the poets - Shakespeare and Villon. These days, I prefer historical novels to fiction, but I always find time for Sienkiewicz and Bunsсh - Polish is a very difficult language, you need to study a lot!
Question: What about the calendar in the witcher world? There are two: the elven one with 8 months and the human one with 12 months. The human calendar is lunar, because the months begin with a new moon. Elvish seems to be sunny and has as many days in a month as human. There are 30 days in a month, but a moon month from new moon to new moon has 34 days. There are also various festivals - Yule, Midinvaerne, Lammas, Belleteyn, clearly associated with the movement of the Sun (summer and winter equinox). Holidays are common for elves and for humans. How many days are there in a month? How is this possible? Perhaps the inhabitants of the witcher world brought their calendars from their native places, and they absolutely do not approach the astronomy of the planet on which they now live?
AS: The Elven calendar is built according to the Sun. It has eight periods (not months, since the "month" is Monat, Mond, Moon), called Savaed. The order of the "Saved" is: Saovine, Yule, Imbaelk, Birke, Blathe, Feainn, Lammas and Velen. There are eight savaed'es and eight important dates, holidays: two Solstices and two Equinoxes (four points on a circle) and four dates, not connected with planets, but with magic: Imbaelk, Belleteyn, Lammas and Saovine. In the case of Imbaelk, Lammas and Saovine, the names correspond to the names of both "savedds" and holidays. Belleteyn - speaking in human language - falls on May 1. Humans brought here a monthly or moon calendar. Months begin with a new moon. Humans took Elvish holidays and added their own.
Question: Can you tell us the excat words of Geralt's last wish? We speculate that maybe it was about wanting to conceive an offspring with Yennefer?
AS: Only Geralt and Yennefer know the words. They spoke so quitely that I couldn't hear. But if was definitely not about any offsprings. Thinking about about it during the romantic tete-a-tete ("solitude, theta-a-tet" (French translation)) would be tactless.
Question: Did witchers came from druids? Their "code", or rather the mode of action, talents and views indicate precisely this direction of the forefathers of the first witcher?
AS: The origins of witchers is lost in the darkness of the epochs, it is not even certain whether the witchers are a side effect of some magical experiment pursuing a completely different goal. The effect that someone completely alien has decided to use. There is no certainty whether this is all out of control, and whether it has not gone its course. No doubt, magic was involved, and natural magic, based on biological components, and that was the specialization of the druids. But "ordinary" sorcerers also understand this magic. And priests as well - though they do not boast of it.
Question: What actual value does virginity have for magic? In the "Question of the Price" Geralt and Mousesack claim that Pavetta can't be a virgin, since she uses the Force. However, Yennefer says something quite the opposite to Ciri.
AC: The belief that magic is not available for a virgin is as stupid as it is common. However, there is a whole group of serious researchers who believe that a woman is better at magic when she starts a regular sex life. We are talking, of course, about mental and hormonal issues, and not about the whole or damaged hymen. The opinion that the virgins are not able to concentrate and fully master magic, was shared, among others, by the famous wizard Herbert Stammelford. But no less famous Nina Fioravanti claimed that Stammelford was a fool - especially when it came to virgins. The in truth is not known for sure. It is also unclear how to carry out research on sine ira et studio ("impartially"). If a fifteen-year-old sorceress is much weaker than a mature, thirty-year-old, is it the matter of virginity or maturity and experience? But on the other hand, it was not possible to find a sorceress who at the age of sixteen would have been a virgin, and there was always a lack of comparative material for research. Then the research stopped, because it was decided that - I will quote Nina Fioravanti - "there are too many important outstanding problems to waste time studying assholes." However, the simple people, and some enlightened, even the druid Mousesack, believe in Stammelford's theory. But I do share the opinion that it is a question of the still existing "male cult of an undisturbed chaff".
Question: What is the origin of the elven language? To what extent is it your invention, and where should you look for sources? Is it developed enough that you can create a dictionary of it? And what about the dwarven language?
AS: The invented language of the elves, the Elder Speech, is based mainly on Italian, Swedish, Welsh and Irish, and when I wanted to be understood - on the more well-known: English and German. The two main verbs for each language ("to be" and "to have") are taken from Latin. There are four versions of the Elder Speech: pure, classical, used by elves; version of the dryads from Brokilon; the Nilfgaardian language (it's like calling Latin a "Roman language"); as well as the jargon of the Skellige islands (it is used by Crach an Craite in the "Question of Price"). But the same Crach an Craite used the calssical version of the seech at the solemn moment. I didn't want to create a language for dwarves (except for the devil's jokes from "The Last Wish"). I invented for the sake of my own justification a racial theory - the dwarves are so assimilated, so deeply convinced (by the example of elves) in the danger of chauvinism and the proclamation of otherness, that they speak "human" not only in contact with people, but even among themselves, playing cards. Young dwarves barely know the dwarven language, and reluctantly use it. History has seen such examples!
Question: There's an opinion that Geralt is emotionally different from the other witchers, and that other witchers are truly "chemically" stripped from emotions. The opposite opinion says that the emotional "inhumanity" of witches is gossip, based on the unusual sight of their eyes, the absence of blush and the preservation of the ability to make meaningful actions in situations in which a normal person would die of fear; that this gossip was intentionally launched when a campaign was waged against the witchers; that then the witchers recognized it as profitable and supported. Instead of asking which version is true, I will ask better, does this dilemma have a solution?
AS: The dilemma does not have a solution, it's a typical example of the statement "all of the above, none of the above." Especially because the only (pale) light on the dark problem is Geralt himself, who at times of stress is still inclined to statements that are exaggeratedly emotional and not always well thought out. Years after his death, among other witchers, the phrase "Don't be a kurva like Geralt" was fashionable.
Question: How old is Geralt? According to our calculations, about 45 ...
AS: He's (during "Baptism of Fire") over fifty. But I won't tell you his exact age. Witchers get older longer than ordinary people and less noticeable than ordinary people. The witcher who's sixty years old will not look older than forty-five. True, in the witcher world, the average age of people is greater than in "our" Middle Ages, but even so, there would hardly have been a wet case of fighting monsters for "a grandfather for fifty." Therefore Geralt hides his age.
Question: Several times in the later volumes of the saga there were obvious hints for the Holy Grail. Do you intend in any way to weave the motives of this legend into the narrative?
AS: We'll see - we'll see. Perhaps... But still I will not say "who's the killer"!
Question: When did you start thinking about the witcher world as a single whole? Do you have a map of this world?
AS: I understand that in your question we are not talking about the world, but about the size of the world - in other words: from when could I know exactly how many days a horse or wheel trip will last from Novigrad to Cintra? It began with the "Blood of the Elves," of course. Until then, this distance was of little interest to me - although of course I knew that there are two such cities. If we are talking about the world in a philosophical sense, then it was always, nicht Wahr? The map, of course, exists. It was done by Stenda Komarek, my Czech translator, I then supplemented and expanded it.
Question: The complexity of the world, described in the saga of Geralt and his friends, begins to reach the riches of Middle-Earth. It is known that Tolkien has a few pages of sketches on every published page of the text, which are now published by his son in the series "History of Middle Earth". He used lists of names, maps, notes ... to keep the logic of his world ... Do you have the same "database" to manage a lot of images, places and events - and if so, will it ever be published?
AS: As already mentioned, I have a map. There are some genealogical trees. There is something like a "guide to the kingdoms." There is a computer catalog of names, titles and any onomastics, allowing at any time to remember who is who and protecting from the creation of names too similar in writing or sounding. All this can theoretically serve as the basis for some "Wiedzmin Companion" ("Witcher's Handbook") For "Sapkowski Zone", I have to think about it ...
submitted by Zyvik123 to witcher [link] [comments]


2018.02.28 18:44 Zyvik123 Interview with Sapkowski "Don't be a kurva like Geralt" (1996)

One of Sapkpowski's older interviews with some interesting bits about the lore.
This one was originally in Polish. I translated the Russian translation, so there might be some inconsistencies.
Question: Have you wrote anything before "The Witcher"?
AS: Of course, I wrote before the Witcher. I wrote many poems (mostly for women). There was also a story in the fashionable (in the late 60's) "James Bond" style. Later - much later - I published for money a short story called "Little Hunt". If anyone saw a movie about hunting for a man, then I inform you that the authors of this film stole the script from my "Little Hunt." I'm kidding, of course, but there must have been something, because I wrote it somewhere in 1972. Just do not ask me where, because I do not even remember the name of the magazine. I also wrote a story called "Steelhead" and even received an award for it ... It was a long time ago ... Well, I was also a translator. "Fantastic" published my translation of "The Words of Guru" by M. Kornbluth. This translation was a funny story - when I was paid for the "Witcher", they found out that I had once received some kind of fee by this magazine and everyone was stunned, because no one knew what it was for. "The mysterious young (sic!) debutant Sapkowski" (nobody knew me at the time) featured in the accounts of "Fantastic"? By what miracle? Ha-ha.
Question: Are not you afraid that the witcher in the movie version will lose its attractiveness, its "otherness"? That it will become another pop product (and we'll see the massive sales of plastic figures of Geralt and Yen in the Barbie style). After all, in addition to dialogues, your strength is descriptions. Will the witcher movie be as interesting without them? Or maybe two versions will be created where in one version the narrator explains what he is talking about, and the second one without it?
AS: For all my - little exaggerated - modesty, I will say: the Witcher is nowhere near as popular as Barbie and "Star Wars" is the pop culture. Yes, I know, pop culture is cheap, pop culture is bad taste, but if they came to me and offered a contract ... Ha! But I'm afraid, they will not come. Am I afraid of the movie? I'm afraid, of course, because there will be the same thing as with the comics: everyone blamed me for everything and asked why it was drawn like this. And this time I will be asked why they casted an actress X and not an actress Y for the role of Yennefer. Harry Harrison (we are personally acquainted) was angry once in the conversation that Hollywood terribly butchered his beautiful book "Make Room, Make Room", making a film "Soylent Green" out of it. I joked that he should be filled with pride and return the money received for copyrights. Then we both laughed for a long time, because the joke was good. But seriously - we can count good "fantasy" movies on the fingers ... well, alright - of both hands. But the hands of the sawmill worker, ha ha. In this - okay, the seven - includes Milius, Burman and Ridley Scott. And also Schwarzenegger, Val Kilmer and Michelle Pfeiffer (Sapkowski is referring to the creators of his favorite fantasy films listed in his article "Sword, Magic, Screen": "Conan the Barbarian", "Excalibur", "Legend", "Willow"," Ladyhawk "). And also "Industrial Light and Magic" (special effects firm of George Lucas). I do not believe that the "Witcher" will be the eighth work that will receive three stars or more. Of course, in Poland there are interesting people who can make movies, on which people will go, otherwise they will have a pale appearance. But practice shows that "fantasy" movies - despite the congestion of a rich entourage, often look like hacks and end with a financial collapse. I believe in the professionalism of our cinematographers and wish them good luck, but I see everything in a black light. But what could I do when they came to buy the rights? Become proud and not sell, explaining it with the above-mentioned gloomy pictures? I would be mistaken for an idiot. I sold the movie rights, I'll sell it to the video game developers. And if it does not work out - please, blame them for it.
Question: Is "Battle Dust" a part of something larger, is there any chance that it will appear in the form of a novel?
AS: "Battle Dust" was a joke invented by the Gdansk Fantasy Club. The joke should have sounded like: "My God, Sapkowski is writing a space opera, and we have a fragment of it!". I have a friendly relationship with the GFC, so I supported the joke. Several years ago I was still amused by jokes. As a joke, "Battle Dust" exceeded the task - the proof of that are numerous questions about the "continuation". Of course, there will be none. "Something Ends, Something Begins" was also a joke associated with GFC. This short story - I repeat a joke, but no one believes me - is NOT the last chapter of "Lady of the Lake".
Q: Do you like reading what you wrote several years ago?
AS: It depends. What has been published, I try to polish and refine, so that with a later reading there will be tragedy. But working texts, notes, seemingly well-written, seemingly good - when I put them aside and after a while I try to use, too often they do not stand the test of time and go to the basket. This fate awaited many fragments of my five novels about Ciri. These books were in the plans for a very long time, and for a long time some fragments were created, "torn from the general whole," since I like to write in "episodes." Now many of those episodes were unearthed from the table and ceased to please me and went to the dump.
Question: What was the point of adding the teller Pogvizd and his impatient listeners: please point a finger at someone whose persuasion to accelerate the writing of further parts of the saga served as an excuse for creating this "slap" for the impatient (the allusion is too noticeable). And, are you angry or flattered by such persuasion?
AS: The teller was created not at the request, nor as an allusion to someone's wishes. It was a technical trick, a trick, the creation of a connected plot. The fact is, I admit that I want to use a rough expression when, one month after the release of the third volume, someone asks me why there is still no fourth and why the hell I'm writing so slow. It makes no sense to pout and explain how long it takes to write a book. People still do not believe. They are sure that I have everything ready for a long time, and I "pull" one book per year for marketing reasons. Or because of the malignancy, which I'm known for. I try to observe the annual intervals out of respect for the reader. If I cared for my own profit, I would issue books every two years.
Question: What was the purpose of showing the teller Pogvizd 140 years later? Or is it a figure that we already know? Most of the readers were knocked out of the rhythm because of it ...
AS: The scene with him is a plot trick, technical method of the writer, called "flashforward." A similar instantaneous transfer into the past is called "flashback" (some epigraphs to sections - for example, "The History of Roderick de Novembra"). Some of my epigraphs ("Encyclopedia" of Effenberg and Talbot) are also "flashforwarders". What I'm trying to achieve in this way is probably understandable. I do not understand how this can confuse somebody. You need to master the technique, because in the "Tower of the Swallow" there will be tons of "flashbacks" and "flash forwarders".
Question: Do the main figures of the witcher world have their prototypes in the real world, in your near or far environment?
AS: There are no prototypes or analogs. No allusions. Only my imagination. Always. I'm sick of idiots (even those who are considered fantasy connoisseurs) who forcibly search for postmodernism in my work, falsely understood as allusions to topics raised by the media and the so-called "fashion." These critics are trying to show what a primitive conjurer I am. That's really not true. Please do not look for copies and "alter egos" of Stalin, Beria, Napoleon among my heroes ... And among the situations described by me, among the dialogues, which I do not lead myself with, but lead my heroes, please do not look for my personal manifestos and political declarations. Literature in my understanding is neither a tribune nor a confessional, it's not even a bench in Hyde Park. Write down, please, the golden words: only bad books talk about what their authors are. Good books say what their heroes are.
Question: Aren't you bored yet of the Witcher saga?
AS: Why would I be? Zelazny wrote 10 "Ambers", Eddings - 10 "Belgariads" plus "Malloreons", Brooks - 8 "Shannaras", Donaldson - 6 "Covenants", Foster - 8 "Spellsingers" ... And I should get bored by a story in five small parts? Funny. It means that the question would be funny if I did not understand your wishes, and I understand. You are bored with it, you are tired of it, you would like to receive a short and action-packed short story every month. I admit that I was once fed up with the "Nights and Days", I left it, and although I'm ashamed, I still do not know what happened there with Bogumił and Barbara. I know a lot of people who threw Tolkien away after reading three pages of text and consider all fantasy fans idiots. De gustibus non est disputandum ("Tastes differ").
Question: Which classics do you like to read? If we talk about the classics, not science fiction and fantasy?
AS: Hemingway, Chandelier, Bulgakov, Parnicki, Le Carre, Eco. From the poets - Shakespeare and Villon. These days, I prefer historical novels to fiction, but I always find time for Sienkiewicz and Bunsсh - Polish is a very difficult language, you need to study a lot!
Question: What about the calendar in the witcher world? There are two: the elven one with 8 months and the human one with 12 months. The human calendar is lunar, because the months begin with a new moon. Elvish seems to be sunny and has as many days in a month as human. There are 30 days in a month, but a moon month from new moon to new moon has 34 days. There are also various festivals - Yule, Midinvaerne, Lammas, Belleteyn, clearly associated with the movement of the Sun (summer and winter equinox). Holidays are common for elves and for humans. How many days are there in a month? How is this possible? Perhaps the inhabitants of the witcher world brought their calendars from their native places, and they absolutely do not approach the astronomy of the planet on which they now live?
AS: The Elven calendar is built according to the Sun. It has eight periods (not months, since the "month" is Monat, Mond, Moon), called Savaed. The order of the "Saved" is: Saovine, Yule, Imbaelk, Birke, Blathe, Feainn, Lammas and Velen. There are eight savaed'es and eight important dates, holidays: two Solstices and two Equinoxes (four points on a circle) and four dates, not connected with planets, but with magic: Imbaelk, Belleteyn, Lammas and Saovine. In the case of Imbaelk, Lammas and Saovine, the names correspond to the names of both "savedds" and holidays. Belleteyn - speaking in human language - falls on May 1. Humans brought here a monthly or moon calendar. Months begin with a new moon. Humans took Elvish holidays and added their own.
Question: Can you tell us the excat words of Geralt's last wish? We speculate that maybe it was about wanting to conceive an offspring with Yennefer?
AS: Only Geralt and Yennefer know the words. They spoke so quitely that I couldn't hear. But if was definitely not about any offsprings. Thinking about about it during the romantic tete-a-tete ("solitude, theta-a-tet" (French translation)) would be tactless.
Question: Did witchers came from druids? Their "code", or rather the mode of action, talents and views indicate precisely this direction of the forefathers of the first witcher?
AS: The origins of witchers is lost in the darkness of the epochs, it is not even certain whether the witchers are a side effect of some magical experiment pursuing a completely different goal. The effect that someone completely alien has decided to use. There is no certainty whether this is all out of control, and whether it has not gone its course. No doubt, magic was involved, and natural magic, based on biological components, and that was the specialization of the druids. But "ordinary" sorcerers also understand this magic. And priests as well - though they do not boast of it.
Question: What actual value does virginity have for magic? In the "Question of the Price" Geralt and Mousesack claim that Pavetta can't be a virgin, since she uses the Force. However, Yennefer says something quite the opposite to Ciri.
AC: The belief that magic is not available for a virgin is as stupid as it is common. However, there is a whole group of serious researchers who believe that a woman is better at magic when she starts a regular sex life. We are talking, of course, about mental and hormonal issues, and not about the whole or damaged hymen. The opinion that the virgins are not able to concentrate and fully master magic, was shared, among others, by the famous wizard Herbert Stammelford. But no less famous Nina Fioravanti claimed that Stammelford was a fool - especially when it came to virgins. The in truth is not known for sure. It is also unclear how to carry out research on sine ira et studio ("impartially"). If a fifteen-year-old sorceress is much weaker than a mature, thirty-year-old, is it the matter of virginity or maturity and experience? But on the other hand, it was not possible to find a sorceress who at the age of sixteen would have been a virgin, and there was always a lack of comparative material for research. Then the research stopped, because it was decided that - I will quote Nina Fioravanti - "there are too many important outstanding problems to waste time studying assholes." However, the simple people, and some enlightened, even the druid Mousesack, believe in Stammelford's theory. But I do share the opinion that it is a question of the still existing "male cult of an undisturbed chaff".
Question: What is the origin of the elven language? To what extent is it your invention, and where should you look for sources? Is it developed enough that you can create a dictionary of it? And what about the dwarven language?
AS: The invented language of the elves, the Elder Speech, is based mainly on Italian, Swedish, Welsh and Irish, and when I wanted to be understood - on the more well-known: English and German. The two main verbs for each language ("to be" and "to have") are taken from Latin. There are four versions of the Elder Speech: pure, classical, used by elves; version of the dryads from Brokilon; the Nilfgaardian language (it's like calling Latin a "Roman language"); as well as the jargon of the Skellige islands (it is used by Crach an Craite in the "Question of Price"). But the same Crach an Craite used the calssical version of the seech at the solemn moment. I didn't want to create a language for dwarves (except for the devil's jokes from "The Last Wish"). I invented for the sake of my own justification a racial theory - the dwarves are so assimilated, so deeply convinced (by the example of elves) in the danger of chauvinism and the proclamation of otherness, that they speak "human" not only in contact with people, but even among themselves, playing cards. Young dwarves barely know the dwarven language, and reluctantly use it. History has seen such examples!
Question: There's an opinion that Geralt is emotionally different from the other witchers, and that other witchers are truly "chemically" stripped from emotions. The opposite opinion says that the emotional "inhumanity" of witches is gossip, based on the unusual sight of their eyes, the absence of blush and the preservation of the ability to make meaningful actions in situations in which a normal person would die of fear; that this gossip was intentionally launched when a campaign was waged against the witchers; that then the witchers recognized it as profitable and supported. Instead of asking which version is true, I will ask better, does this dilemma have a solution?
AS: The dilemma does not have a solution, it's a typical example of the statement "all of the above, none of the above." Especially because the only (pale) light on the dark problem is Geralt himself, who at times of stress is still inclined to statements that are exaggeratedly emotional and not always well thought out. Years after his death, among other witchers, the phrase "Don't be a kurva like Geralt" was fashionable.
Question: How old is Geralt? According to our calculations, about 45 ...
AS: He's (during "Baptism of Fire") over fifty. But I won't tell you his exact age. Witchers get older longer than ordinary people and less noticeable than ordinary people. The witcher who's sixty years old will not look older than forty-five. True, in the witcher world, the average age of people is greater than in "our" Middle Ages, but even so, there would hardly have been a wet case of fighting monsters for "a grandfather for fifty." Therefore Geralt hides his age.
Question: Several times in the later volumes of the saga there were obvious hints for the Holy Grail. Do you intend in any way to weave the motives of this legend into the narrative?
AS: We'll see - we'll see. Perhaps... But still I will not say "who's the killer"!
Question: When did you start thinking about the witcher world as a single whole? Do you have a map of this world?
AS: I understand that in your question we are not talking about the world, but about the size of the world - in other words: from when could I know exactly how many days a horse or wheel trip will last from Novigrad to Cintra? It began with the "Blood of the Elves," of course. Until then, this distance was of little interest to me - although of course I knew that there are two such cities. If we are talking about the world in a philosophical sense, then it was always, nicht Wahr? The map, of course, exists. It was done by Stenda Komarek, my Czech translator, I then supplemented and expanded it.
Question: The complexity of the world, described in the saga of Geralt and his friends, begins to reach the riches of Middle-Earth. It is known that Tolkien has a few pages of sketches on every published page of the text, which are now published by his son in the series "History of Middle Earth". He used lists of names, maps, notes ... to keep the logic of his world ... Do you have the same "database" to manage a lot of images, places and events - and if so, will it ever be published?
AS: As already mentioned, I have a map. There are some genealogical trees. There is something like a "guide to the kingdoms." There is a computer catalog of names, titles and any onomastics, allowing at any time to remember who is who and protecting from the creation of names too similar in writing or sounding. All this can theoretically serve as the basis for some "Wiedzmin Companion" ("Witcher's Handbook") For "Sapkowski Zone", I have to think about it ...
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Exeter Lammas Procession: This is why a man will walk down ...

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  5. De Lama Dating Show met als gast Annette Barlo - YouTube
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  7. Tik toks that help me get through the day😴😂 - YouTube
  8. ELDERS REACT TO LLAMAS WITH HATS - YouTube
  9. De Lama's Datingshow *Loempiavouwer!* Irene Moors - YouTube

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